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AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA, 1949-90. 


Abstract 

The entire database consists of 297 tables of agricultural 
statistics for the People's Republic of China. The statistics 
cover land use, population, labor force, gross value of 
agricultural output, agricultural investment, crop production, crop 
sown area, state procurement, livestock inventory and slaughter, 
animal product output, input production and use, costs of 
production, consumption of agricultural commodities, selected 
retail price indices and mixed average procurement prices for 
selected agricultural crops, and finally, quantity and value of 
imports and exports of selected commodities. Data are presented 
for the national level and the provincial level where available. 
The title of every table available in the database is listed 
below. The titles for the individual dataset that you have 
purchased are indicated/separated by the Chapter heading. 
Chapter 1 covers Basic Social and Economic Indicators; 
Chapter 2 covers Grain Statistics;
Chapter 3 covers Fiber and Oilseed Statistics; 
Chapter 4 covers Economic and Other Crop Statistics; 
Chapter 5 covers Livestock Statistics;
Chapter 6 covers Agricultural Input Statistics; 
Chapter 7 covers Agricultural Price Statistics; 
Chapter 8 covers Costs of Agricultural Production; 
Chapter 9 covers Agricultural Trade Statistics; and 
Chapter 10 covers Consumption and Expenditure 

Statistics. 

Table No. 

Chapter 1: Basic Social and Economic Indicators 

  1. Population and labor force, China, 1969-90 
  2. Total and rural labor force, by sector, China, 1949-90 
  3. Total population, by region and province, China, 1982-90 
  4. Agricultural population, by region and province, China, 1982-90 
  5. Land area, by type, China, 1975-90 
  6. Cultivated area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
  7. Total sown area (all crops), by region and province, China, 1979-90 
  8. Sown area for grain crops, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
  9. Sown area for economic crops, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
10. Sown area for other crops, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
11. Multiple crop index (MCI), by region and province, China, 1979-90 
12. National income, by sector, China, 1952-90 
13. National gross value of output, by sector, China, 1952-90 
14. Gross value of agricultural output (GVAO), in current prices, 
       by region and province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
15. Gross value of agricultural output (GVAO), in constant 1980 
       prices, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
16. Gross value of agricultural output (GVAO), in current prices, 
       by region and province, China, 1952-63 
17. Gross value of agricultural output (GVAO) in current prices, by 
       region and province, China, 1964-74 
18. Gross value of agricultural output (GVAO) in current prices, by 
       region and province, China, 1975-85 
19. Gross rural industrial output value, by region and province, 
       China, selected years, 1980-90 
20. National agricultural capital construction investment, China, 1953-90 
21. National agricultural capital construction investment use, China, 1985-90 
22. State budgetary expenditures on agriculture, China, 1950-88 
23. Total agricultural capital construction investment, by region 
       and province, China, 1981-90 
24. National bank credit receipts and payments, yearend outstanding 
       balance, China, 1982-90 
25. Rural Credit Cooperative deposits and loans, yearend 
      outstanding balance, China, 1953-90 
296. Yuan per U.S. dollar exchange rates, selected annual and 
        quarterly rates, 1960-90 

Chapter 2: Grain Statistics 

26. Grain area, China, 1949-90 
27. Grain production, China, 1949-90 
28. Total grain, rice and wheat area, by individual harvest, China, 1949-90 
29. Total grain, rice and wheat production, by individual harvest, China, 1949-90 
30. Coarse grain area and production, China, 1952-90 
31. Grain procurement, China, 1952-89 
32. Total grain procurement and sales, China, 1960-90 
33. Quarterly commercial grain procurement and sales, China, 1981-89 
34. Wheat production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
35. Wheat area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
36. Winter wheat production, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
37. Winter wheat area, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
38. Spring wheat production, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
39. Spring wheat area, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
40. Rice production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
41. Rice area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
42. Early rice production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
43. Early rice area, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
44. Intermediate and single crop late rice production, by region 
       and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
45. Intermediate and single crop late rice area, by region and 
       province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
46. Double crop late rice production, by region and province, 
       China, selected years, 1979-90 
47. Double crop late rice area, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
48. Northern rice production, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
49. Northern rice area, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
50. Corn production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
51. Corn area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
52. Soybean production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
53. Soybean area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
54. Sorghum production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
55. Sorghum area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
56. Millet production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
57. Millet area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
58. Tuber production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
59. Tuber area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
60. Total grain production, by region and province, China, 1963-72 
61. Total grain production, by region and province, China, 1973-82 
62. Total grain production, by region and province, China, 1983-90 
63. Total grain area, by region and province, China, 1963-72 
64. Total grain area, by region and province, China, 1973-82 
65. Total grain area, by region and province, China, 1983-90 
66. Commercial grain procurement, by region and province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
67. Fixed and negotiated price state grain procurement, by region and province, China, 1987 
68. Fixed and negotiated price state grain procurement, by region and province, China, 1989 
69. Fixed and negotiated price state grain sales, by region and province, China, 1987 
70. Fixed and negotiated price state grain sales, by region and province, China, 1989 

Chapter 3: Fiber and Oilseed Statistics 

71. Fiber crop area, China, 1949-90 
72. Fiber crop production, China, 1949-90 
73. Cotton production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
74. Cotton area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
75. Indian hemp production, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
76. Indian hemp area, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
77. Jute and ambary hemp (kenaf) production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
78. Jute and ambary hemp (kenaf) area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
79. Sheep wool production, by region and province, China, 1982-90 
80. Yarn, chemical fiber and silk production, China, 1949-90 
81. Cloth, fabric and textile goods production, China, 1949-90 
82. Edible and industrial oilseed production, China, 1949-90 
83. Edible oilseed area, China, 1949-90 
84. Sesameseed production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
85. Sesameseed area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
86. Rapeseed production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
87. Rapeseed area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
88. Sunflowerseed production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
89. Sunflowerseed area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
90. Peanut production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
91. Peanut area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
92. Total edible vegetable oil production, by region and province, China, 1985-90 
93. Town and township enterprise edible vegetable oil production, 
       by region and province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
94. State procurement of edible vegetable oil and natural fibers, China, 1952-90

Chapter 4: Economic and Other Crop Statistics 

95. Sugar, sugarcane and sugarbeet output and state procurement, China, 1949-90 
96. Tea and tobacco production and state procurement, China, 1949-90 
97. Fruit production, China, 1949-90 
98. Selected economic and other crop area, China, 1949-90 
99. Flue-cured tobacco production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
100. Flue-cured tobacco area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
101. Other tobacco production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
102. Other tobacco area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
103. Sugarbeet production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
104. Sugarbeet area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
105. Sugarcane production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
106. Sugarcane area, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
107. Forage area, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
108. Green manure area, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
109. Vegetable area, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
110. Apple production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
111. Apple area, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
112. Banana production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
113. Banana area, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
114. Citrus production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
115. Citrus area, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
116. Pear production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
117. Pear area, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
118. Grape production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
119. Grape area, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 
120. Persimmon production, by region and province, China, selected years, 1979-90 

Chapter 5: Livestock Statistics 

121. Hog, sheep and goat yearend inventory, slaughter and carcass weight, China, 1949-90 
122. Cattle yearend inventory, calves born, slaughter and carcass weight, China, 1949-90 
123. Large animal yearend inventory, China, 1949-90 
124. Livestock food product output, China, 1949-90 
125. State procurement of live animals and livestock products, China, 1952-90 
126. Beef production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
127. Pork production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
128. Mutton production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
129. Cow milk production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
130. Goat milk production, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
131. Egg production, by region and province, China, 1982-90 
132. Honey production, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
133. Poultry meat production, by region and province, China, 1984-90 
134. Rabbit meat production, by region and province, China, 1984-90 
135. Hog yearend inventory, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
136. Sow yearend inventory, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
137. Hog slaughter, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
138. Hog slaughter rate, by province, China, 1979-90 
139. Yellow cattle yearend inventory, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
140. Water buffalo yearend inventory, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
141. Dairy cattle yearend inventory, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
142. Cattle slaughter, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
143. Sheep yearend inventory, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
144. Goat yearend inventory, by region and province China, 1979-90 
145. Sheep and goat slaughter, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
146. Horse yearend inventory, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
147. Camel yearend inventory, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
148. Mule yearend inventory, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
149. Donkey yearend inventory, by region and province, China, 1979-90 

Chapter 6: Agricultural Input Statistics 

150. Irrigated area and energy output, China, 1949-90 
151. Irrigated area, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
152. Number of farm machines, China, 1949-90 
153. Farm machinery horsepower, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
154. Mechanically tilled area, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
155. Mechanically sown area, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
156. Mechanically harvested area, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
157. Draft animal yearend inventory, by region and province, China, 1979-90 
158. Labor force in rural areas and townships, China, selected years, 1979-90 
159. Chemical fertilizer production, China, 1949-90 
160. Chemical fertilizer application, China, 1951-90 
161. Total chemical fertilizer application, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
162. Nitrogen fertilizer application, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
163. Phosphorous fertilizer application, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
164. Potassium fertilizer application, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
165. Compound fertilizer application, by region and province, China, 1980-90 
166. Cultivated area suffering serious damage from natural 
         disaster, by region and province, China, 1983-90 

Chapter 7: Cost of Production Statistics 

167. Corn costs of production, by province, China, 1984 
168. Corn costs of production, by province, China, 1986 
169. Corn costs of production, by province, China, 1987 
170. Corn costs of production, by province, China, 1988 
171. Corn costs of production, by province, China, 1989 
172. Corn costs of production, by province, China, 1990 
173. Cotton costs of production, by province, China, 1984 
174. Cotton costs of production, by province, China, 1986 
175. Cotton costs of production, by province, China, 1987 
176. Cotton costs of production, by province, China, 1988 
177. Cotton costs of production, by province, China, 1989 
178. Cotton costs of production, by province, China, 1990 
179. Peanut costs of production, by province, China, 1984 
180. Peanut costs of production, by province, China, 1986 
181. Peanut costs of production, by province, China, 1987 
182. Peanut costs of production, by province, China, 1988 
183. Peanut costs of production, by province, China, 1989 
184. Peanut costs of production, by province, China, 1990 
185. Rice costs of production, by province, China, 1984 
186. Rice costs of production, by province, China, 1986 
187. Rice costs of production, by province, China, 1987 
188. Rice costs of production, by province, China, 1988 
189. Rice costs of production, by province, China, 1989 
190. Rice costs of production, by province, China, 1990 
191. Rapeseed costs of production, by province, China, 1984 
192. Rapeseed costs of production, by province, China, 1986 
193. Rapeseed costs of production, by province, China, 1987 
194. Rapeseed costs of production, by province, China, 1988 
195. Rapeseed costs of production, by province, China, 1989 
196. Rapeseed costs of production, by province, China, 1990 
197. Soybean costs of production, by province, China, 1984 
198. Soybean costs of production, by province, China, 1986 
199. Soybean costs of production, by province, China, 1987 
200. Soybean costs of production, by province, China, 1988 
201. Soybean costs of production, by province, China, 1989 
202. Soybean costs of production, by province, China, 1990 
203. Wheat costs of production, by province, China, 1984 
204. Wheat costs of production, by province, China, 1986 
205. Wheat costs of production, by province, China, 1987 
206. Wheat costs of production, by province, China, 1988 
207. Wheat costs of production, by province, China, 1989 
208. Wheat costs of production, by province, China, 1990 

Chapter 8: Consumption and Expenditure Statistics 

209. Per capita expenditure average for all residents, China, 1952-90 
210. Peasant household per capita expenditures, China, selected years, 1957-90 
211. Urban household per capita expenditures, China, selected years 1957-90 
212. Peasant household per capita consumption of selected goods, China, 1978-90 
213. Urban household per capita purchase of selected goods, China, selected years, 1957-90 
214. Peasant household per capita net income, by province, China, selected years, 1978-90 
215. Value of peasant household per capita commodities purchased at 
         markets and provided from own sources, China, 1980-90 
216. Urban and rural grain consumption, total volume and per capita, China, 1952-90 
217. Urban and rural edible oil consumption, total volume and per capita, China, 1952-90 
218. Urban and rural pork consumption, total volume and per capita, China, 1952-90 
219. Urban and rural sugar consumption, total volume and per 
         capita, China, 1952-90 
220. Average consumption expenditures of all residents, 
         agricultural residents and non-agricultural residents, by province, China, 1984-89 
221. Peasant per capita grain consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
222. Peasant per capita fine grain consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
223. Peasant per capita edible oil consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
224. Peasant per capita cotton cloth consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
225. Peasant per capita red meat consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
226. Peasant per capita poultry consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
227. Peasant per capita egg consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
228. Peasant per capita seafood consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
229. Peasant per capita sugar consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
230. Peasant per capita vegetable consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
231. Peasant per capita tea consumption, by province, China, 1982-90 
232. Peasant per capita alcohol consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
233. Peasant per capita cigarette consumption, by province, China, 1982-90 
234. Peasant per capita woolen fabric consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
235. Peasant per capita silk and satin consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
236. Peasant per capita chemical fiber cloth consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
237. Peasant per capita knitted goods consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 
238. Peasant per capita shoe consumption, by province, China, selected years, 1980-90 

Chapter 9: Agricultural Price Statistics 

239. National, urban and rural average open market price index, by commodity, China, 1982-90 
240. National retail list price index, China, 1951-90 
241. Rural retail list price index, China, 1951-90 
242. Urban retail list price index, China, 1951-90 
243. Mixed average retail prices of major commodities, China, 1952-90 
244. Other mixed average retail prices of major commodities, China, 1952-90 
245. Mixed average state crop procurement prices, China, 1952-90 
246. Other mixed average state crop procurement prices, China, 1952-90 
247. Mixed average state livestock procurement prices, China, 1952-90 
248. Mixed average state livestock product procurement prices, China, 1952-90 
249. State procurement prices for standard grade cotton, China, 1983-90 
250. Wheat procurement prices and grades, by province, China, 1986-90 
251. Rice (xiandao variety) procurement prices and grades, by province, China, 1986-89 
252. Rice (jingdao variety) procurement prices and grades, by province, China, 1986-90 
253. Corn procurement prices and grades, by province, China, 1986-90 
254. Millet procurement prices and grades, by province, China, 1986-90 
255. Sorghum procurement prices and grades, by province, China, 1986-90 
256. Soybean procurement prices and grades, by province, China, 1986-90 
257. Peanut procurement prices and grades, by province, China, 1986-90 
258. Rapeseed procurement prices and grades, by province, China, 1986-90 
259. Sesameseed procurement prices and grades, by province, China, 1986-90 
260. Cottonseed procurement prices and grades, by province, China, 1986-89 

Chapter 10: Agricultural Trade Statistics 

261. Grain exports, MOFERT statistics, China, 1950-89 
262. Oilseed, oil and nut exports, MOFERT statistics, China, 1950-89 
263. Animal and animal product exports, MOFERT statistics, China, 1950-89 
264. Fruit and vegetable exports, MOFERT statistics, China, 1950-89 
265. Textile exports, MOFERT statistics, China, 1950-89 
266. Other agricultural product exports, MOFERT statistics, China, 1950-89 
267. Crop and agricultural product imports, MOFERT statistics, China, 1950-89 
268. Input and other product imports, MOFERT statistics, China, 1950-89 
269. Major agricultural exports, value, China, by quarter, 1983 
270. Major agricultural exports, value, China, by quarter, 1984 
271. Major agricultural exports, value, China, by quarter, 1985 
272. Major agricultural exports, value, China, by quarter, 1986 
273. Major agricultural exports, value, China, by quarter, 1987 
274. Major agricultural exports, value, China, by quarter, 1988 
275. Major agricultural exports, value, China, by quarter, 1989 
276. Major agricultural exports, value, China, by quarter, 1990 
277. Major agricultural imports, value, China, by quarter, 1983-84 
278. Major agricultural imports, value, China, by quarter, 1985-86 
279. Major agricultural imports, China, value, by quarter, 1987 
280. Major agricultural imports, China, value, by quarter, 1988 
281. Major agricultural imports, value, China, by quarter, 1989 
282. Major agricultural imports, value, China, by quarter, 1990 
283. Major agricultural exports, quantity, China, by quarter, 1983 
284. Major agricultural exports, quantity, China, by quarter, 1984 
285. Major agricultural exports, quantity, China, by quarter, 1985 
286. Major agricultural exports, quantity, China, by quarter, 1986 
287. Major agricultural exports, quantity, China, by quarter, 1987 
288. Major agricultural exports, quantity, China, by quarter, 1988 
289. Major agricultural exports, quantity, China, by quarter, 1989 
290. Major agricultural exports, quantity, China, by quarter, 1990 
291. Major agricultural imports, quantity, China, by quarter, 1983-84 
292. Major agricultural imports, quantity, China, by quarter, 1985-86 
293. Major agricultural imports, quantity, China, by quarter, 1987-88 
294. Major agricultural imports, quantity, China, by quarter, 1989 
295. Major agricultural imports, quantity, China, by quarter, 1990 
25a. Consumer price index and state employee cost of living index, China, 1950-90 

Introduction

This statistical bulletin updates and expands the coverage of an earlier publication -- Agricultural Statistics of the People's Republic of China, 1949-86. The report compiles much of the important agricultural data that China's State Statistical Bureau (SSB) reported for 1949-90. It forms a current agricultural data base for China using statistics from a wide variety of official, primarily Chinese language, sources from the People's Republic of China (PRC). Because this report is restricted to official Chinese data, it is not necessarily consistent with data used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). While USDA has used official data from China for more recent years, not all of USDA's historical series have been revised to reflect the newly released historical statistical series, particularly when the historical data provided by China are incomplete.

This bulletin provides a relatively complete national historical series for 1949-90, along with a provincial series for 1979-90, for China's area and production of most major crops. Other agricultural data available from official sources have also been covered in this report, including national and provincial livestock production, selected national series on production and use of major inputs, national and provincial land use and population data, national and provincial procurement prices, national and provincial consumption statistics, and major agricultural imports and exports by commodity. However, other important agricultural data, such as commodity by country trade statistics, detailed national and provincial income data and national and provincial level commodity prices are either not yet available or are beyond the scope of this report.

During the 1950's, the Government of the People's Republic of China published a great deal of statistical data. The economic disasters of the late 1950's and the political and social turmoil during the Cultural Revolution (1966-76), however, led to a 20-year period during which no official statistical data were released. Following the death of Mao Zedong in 1976 and the emergence of economic growth as an important priority of the leadership, China began rebuilding its statistical system. For a brief overview of China's rural statistical system, see Planning and Statistical Systems in China's Agriculture referenced in the Suggested Readings section of this report. That publication also contains a timetable listing dates when various statistical reports are scheduled to be published and includes translations of 12 annual statistical and 3 periodic report forms.

In June 1979, the SSB released a state plan fulfillment communique describing the successes and failures of the state economic plan, the first in 20 years, and in August 1980, the first official statistical yearbook was published. Since then, a wide range of agricultural, economic, statistical, encyclopedic yearbooks, and other official statistical books, pamphlets and economic plan communiques have been published annually (see Suggested Readings and References sections).

Although China has revised some of its earlier figures (primarily on grain production) since data publication resumed in 1979, most of the data remains unchanged from yearbook to yearbook. This suggests that the SSB has carefully scrutinized these statistics and considers them to be the best they can currently produce. China initially published many of the series included in this report for only a few key years. Each subsequent yearbook has added data not available in earlier years; so gaps in some series have already been filled. China probably will eventually publish more of the important data needed to analyze production, consumption and trade in the agricultural sector.

A wide variety of data are collected by SSB enumerators every year. The SSB directs the surveys, prints the survey forms, and trains the survey personnel. The surveys are used to collect data on rural population, labor force conditions, crop production, livestock output, household income and expenditure and commodity prices. Readers interested in the specific survey methodologies employed by the statistical agencies should see Tuan, Francis C., and Frederick W. Crook. Planning and Statistical Systems in China's Agriculture. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 181, April, 1983.

Area and yield estimates are compiled at local levels (county and prefecture) to arrive at provincial and then national production totals. However, it should be noted that not all agricultural commodities are reported by the SSB, for instance spring or winter wheat; early, intermediate, late or northern rice; and sesameseed or sunflowerseed. If data are not available from the SSB, it is taken from the annual China Agriculture Yearbook published by the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). These data correspond relatively closely to SSB data where there are overlaps, so the data from MOA are accepted as a secondary source of official data. However, MOA production and area data are collected by their own statistical system. Therefore, there are occasions where there are more significant differences between SSB and MOA data.

Another source of crop and livestock data is the Ministry of Commerce (MOC). The MOC publishes the China Commerce Yearbook, the only source for many of the procurement statistics presented in this bulletin. The MOC is also the only source for the provincial level grain procurement and sales data broken down by fixed and negotiated price. And finally, the MOC is a source for data on the total national, urban and rural consumption volume of certain agricultural commodities. The reader should note that when this consumption data is divided by the appropriate population, the resulting per capita consumption figures do not correspond exactly with the official consumption data published by the SSB. As with the MOA, the MOC has its own internal statistical system to collect and process the data published in its yearbook.

Cost of production data published here comes from MOA's China Agriculture Yearbook. Readers should use this data with caution. The sample sizes are extremely small and it is unknown whether or not the sample selection was random. For example, the 1987 rice costs of production surveyed only 426 hectares of 32.2 million of total rice sown area. Just as with any other costs of production survey, the accuracy of this survey depends on how representative the sample is and how clearly and consistently definitions, such as standard labor days, are applied. Furthermore, the meaning and consistency of definitions, both within and between crops, is also unknown. One publication, Nongchanpin Chengben yu Jiage Lunwen Ji (A Collection of Treatises on Agricultural Product Costs of Production and Prices), referenced in the Suggested Readings section below, offers some clues to the cost of production data.

However, the collection was published in 1983, prior to the dissolution of the commune system and the introduction of the household responsibility system (HPRS). As such, it is unclear how the survey methodology and data manipulation may have changed to accommodate the HPRS. In addition, the publication describes the State Statistical Bureau's pre-1983 cost of production data, while the data published in this bulletin come from post-1983 Ministry of Agriculture data. Readers interested in learning more about the problems found in the cost of production data should contact Shwu- Eng Webb, China Section, ERS at (202) 219-0621.

Peasant consumption and expenditure data included in the bulletin come primarily from household consumption, income and expenditure surveys conducted by the SSB. For these surveys, the number of households surveyed have increased rapidly through time. The Ministry of Commerce also reports rural consumption data, but it is unclear where the statistics come from. The reader should note that there are discrepancies between SSB per capita consumption data and MOC data.

Urban resident consumption and expenditure data are reportedly calculated from MOC data (MOC controls the urban state and collective retail store networks) and from SSB surveys of family budget surveys of workers and employees. The surveys originated in the early 1950's by administrative units and industries. The quality of survey data improved in 1956-57, when a nationwide unified survey system was organized. Families selected in the sample included workers in enterprises owned or managed by the state, and engineers, technicians, teachers, and administrative personnel of government and public organizations. Statistical workers and administrative officials in the various provinces and cities used different sampling techniques. Some used proportional stratified sampling with systematic sampling inside strata. Others used systematic sampling but constructed the sample on the basis of composition of the labor force, degree of wage differentials and the scale of production within the administrative unit. Others used a model selection process.

And finally, there are two official sources for trade statistics in China: China's Customs Administration (Customs) and the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and Trade (MOFERT). Data in the historical series are those from China's Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and Trade (MOFERT). Exports are on a free on board (f.o.b.) basis while imports are on a cost, insurance and freight (c.i.f.) basis. MOFERT data include all types of trade under the Ministry's jurisdiction, whether or not entering China's ports. The value added to goods imported, processed, and re-exported, such as labor costs and processing fees, is also included. But, MOFERT data exclude local trade not under its jurisdiction, trade of some joint ventures and all individual dealings. MOFERT statistics also include aid commitments not yet delivered to China.

Statistics from Customs only became available in 1981. These statistics differ from those of MOFERT because their coverage in some cases is more inclusive. Statistics from the Customs Administration include all trade via China's ports and customs-cleared aid donations. They also cover a broader range of imports and exports, including trade of local and provincial enterprises not reporting to MOFERT, all joint enterprises, and trade by individuals and firms. However, the full value of transshipments, principally through Hong Kong, are considered either as originating in or bound for the city. This helps to explain some of the large discrepancy that exists between official U.S. and Customs trade statistics. U.S. statistics record imports and exports according to the country of origin and final destination of goods.

Over the course of the 1980's, Customs reported agricultural commodity statistics have gradually grown larger than those reported by MOFERT. MOFERT statistics have captured less and less of the trade as China has relaxed its centrally-controlled trade system and independent trading companies have taken over an increased volume of trade.

Selected Definitions

Throughout all tables, "na" indicates that data are not available. Also, "--" indicates a number that is negligible (between 0 and 0.5), but is only used when found in the original source. Numbers listed in the original source that are so small that they show as zero, given the assigned units, are left as zero. Therefore, zeros designate data that are available, but the value of which is zero or a negligible amount (less than 0.5). However, there are instances where China's publications leave a cell empty rather than using a zero to report no production and we are almost certain that the figure should in fact be a zero. Nevertheless, we have generally chosen to follow China's reporting since we have not always been able to definitively determine that any particular entry should in fact have been a zero rather than "na." With all tables, unless otherwise stated, tons refer to metric tons and years are calendar years and include production of crops harvested within that year.

Most provincial level tables include a footnote indicating Hainan data are not available until 1988 and data for earler years are included in the Guangdong province figure. Up until 1988, Hainan was only an administrative region (prefecture) within Guangdong.

However, in 1988 Hainan Island was accorded provincial status, making it necessary to add Hainan to the list of provinces. In a few tables included in this bulletin data are provided for Hainan province beginning prior to 1988. The numbers, taken from the Hainan Tongji Nianjian (Hainan Statistical Yearbook), were then subtracted from the Guangdong province number to balance out the total. Hainan numbers were not added to the majority of tables because of inconsistencies between the reported Hainan province data and the prefecture level data reported for Hainan in various Guangdong yearbooks (Guangdongsheng Tongji Nianjian). Full historical series for Hainan province, therefore, await additional data releases from the State Statistical Bureau.

Numbers in parentheses below each table refer to items listed in the References section of this report. Although efforts were made to give complete source listings for each table, occasionally space limitations prevented the listing of all sources when data in a given table came from a wide variety of different sources. If necessary, information on specific data points can be obtained from China Section staff by calling (202) 219-0626.

USDA's regional categorization in the provincial tables differs from the regional groupings currently used in China's statistical publications. All regional totals, therefore, are sums of provincial data, not published PRC statistics. Also, the sum of total provincial data in some cases does not equal the national total of the SSB. This is generally because the national totals used are the latest revisions, and revised provincial details for the new SSB totals are not available. Finally, as far as is known, provincial data have been affected by, though not adjusted for, the July l, l979, changes in provincial boundaries. Inner Mongolia (Nei Monggol) was substantially enlarged at the expense of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning.

Some kinds of data, however, such as provincial per capita consumption of specific goods or crop cost of production, cannot be simply summed to obtain a regional total because each province has a different population base or sample size. In these cases, provinces have been arranged in their normal regions and national totals have been included, but the separate parts have not been summed to obtain a regional total.

The definitions listed below are an adjunct to the footnotes below the tables themselves. These definitions are valid unless otherwise indicated by a specific note attached to a table. It was not possible to get complete definitions for all terms used in the tables. China's statistical publications are notorious for the paucity of descriptive information for their statistics.

Nevertheless, an attempt was made to provide some guidance to the meanings of terms by collecting information and definitions from a wide variety of published and unpublished sources, as well as information gleaned from interviews with officials and researchers in China. Many of the definitions included here are, at least in part, from either a detailed 1979 handbook defining state farm statistics or a more general 1980 handbook defining basic agricultural statistics. We limited the use of state farm definitions to agronomic definitions of crops because these are the most likely to be the same across the various statistical systems (SSB, MOA, state farm, etc.).

Aquatic Products -- Aquatic products includes both fresh water and salt water fish and products, both naturally cured and artificially cultured, including sea fish, seaweed, shellfish, mollusk and crustacea. Water plants, such as water chestnuts and lotus roots, are excluded.

Area -- Crop area statistics are reported on the basis of sown area, not harvested area. Sown area is land on which crops are planted and from which a harvest is expected. Since land is frequently sown two or more times a year, sown area is substantially larger than cultivated area (see Multiple Cropping Index). Area of crops destroyed prior to the scheduled reporting date is excluded, but area suffering disasters after the scheduled reporting date is included. Seedbed area is not included unless it is planted with another crop after its seedlings have been transplanted. Area of crops cultivated along roadsides is excluded, but area intercropped in orchards is included. Area of perennial crops is included in the year the crop yields a harvest, regardless of when it was actually planted. Crops regrown from the previous season's stubble are not counted again in the second year's sown area.

Readers should be aware that many of China's agriculture officials and scholars believe that China underreports grain area.

Interviews with officials in China have found a general consensus that cultivated area is underreported by around 30 percent. See China Agriculture and Trade Report, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, July 1991, p. 18, for a brief report on the history and implications of grain area underreporting in China. Bast Fiber -- Bast fibers include jute, ramie, flax, Indian hemp (da ma) and an other bast fiber plant category. The other category includes sisal (jian ma) and an unknown number of other minor bast fiber crops. Indian hemp is treated separately from ambary hemp (kenaf).

Cattle -- Cattle statistics include yellow cattle (see definition), water buffalo, yaks (maoniu) and dairy cattle (both local and hybrid breeds).

Chemical Fiber -- Chemical fibers includes two types of fibers: synthetic fibers (hecheng xianwei) and viscose fibers (nianjiao xianwei).

Cigarettes -- Two common units of measurement for cigarettes are cases and boxes (packs). One case contains 250 cartons, and each carton contains 10 boxes of 20 cigarettes each.

Citrus Fruit -- Citrus fruit production and area statistics cover all varieties of citrus (orange, tangerine, grapefruit, etc.).

Cloth -- Cloth output, measured in linear meters, includes the total of pure cotton cloth, cotton blends, and pure synthetic fabrics. Output figures in square meters available for 1978-83 indicate that the average width rose from 0.933 meters in 1979 to 0.989 meters in 1983.

Corn -- Corn output is reported on a dry kernel (shelled or off the cob) basis. It is considered to be on a dry weight basis when water content is between 14 and 18 percent depending on the province.

Cost of Production -- China began publishing production cost data for major agricultural crops in 1986 (beginning with cost data for 1984). The data should be used with caution. The sample size is extremely small and it is unknown whether or not the sample selection was random. The meaning and consistency of definitions, both within and between crops, is also unknown.

Cotton -- All cotton statistics are on a lint (deseeded) basis. Also, all cotton data excludes tree cotton (mumian).

Crop Classification -- China's crop classification separates crop area and production into three broad categories: grain crops, economic crops, and other crops. Economic crops (jingji zuowu) include most nongrain crops: cotton, jute, hemp, other fiber crops, oilseeds, sugarcane, sugarbeets, tobacco, medicinal crops and a miscellaneous category. Other crops includes vegetables, melons, fodder crops and green manure.

Cultivated Land -- Statistics on cultivated land refer only to permanent cropland and include land left fallow for less than 3 years.

Disaster -- China tabulates the amount of cultivated area seriously affected (chengzai) by natural disaster. Disaster includes flood, drought, frost, freeze, wind and hail damage. Serious damage is defined as normal yields reduced by 30 percent or more. Another category, slightly affected (shouzai) area, tallies area with yield loss of 29 percent or less.

Draft Animals -- Draft animals are defined as animals used for field preparation and/or hauling. This includes yellow cattle, water buffalo, horses, mules, donkeys and camels. It excludes draft animals that are too old to work or that are not actually used for draft work.

Edible Oil -- Edible oil production data is defined as edible vegetable oil (shiyong zhiwu you), differing substantially from other statistics given as the oil equivalent of total oilseed production or from per capita edible oil consumption data which includes both edible plant and animal oils. The edible oils from soybeans, rice bran, and corn, which would be excluded from the PRC definition of total oilseeds, are all included in edible vegetable (plant) oil figures. Part of cottonseed oil is also included. Edible animal oils would include lard and some other minor oils. See Zhongguo Nongye Nianjian, 1983 (China Agriculture Yearbook, 1983), p. 147 for a comparison, by province, of the two different components of edible oil (vegetable and animal).

Eggs -- Egg (fresh) output and consumption statistics in China include both chicken and duck eggs. Other minor eggs may also be included (goose, pigeon, quail, etc.).

Farm Machinery Power -- Total farm machinery power includes the total mechanical power of machinery used in farming, forestry, animal husbandry, fishery and such farm sideline occupations as plowing, irrigating, draining, harvesting, farm product processing, agricultural transport, plant protection and stock breeding. It excludes machinery used in township (commune-run) industry, construction, nonagricultural transport, scientific experimentation and teaching. Prior to 1986, internal combustion engines were counted according to horsepower and electric motors were counted by converting from kilowatt to horsepower (one horsepower equals 735 watts). Pre-1986 data was converted to a kilowatt basis to make the data consistent.

Fertilizer -- Fertilizer statistics in China are measured in three different production units: actual, standard and effective weight. Actual weight is the gross weight of the product. Standard weight is weight converted into weight of standard fertilizers: ammonium sulfate (20 percent nitrogen), super phosphate (18.7 percent P205), and potassium sulfate (40 percent K2O). Effective weight measures the actual nutrient content. Standard fertilizer weights are not available after the early 1980's. Note that fertilizer application data prior to 1966 are not available and fertilizer sales volume has been used as a proxy.

Fertilizer Use -- Fertilizer use is measured per unit of cultivated rather than sown area.

Forage Area -- Forage crop area in China likely includes area sown to fodder crops or sown and then used to graze livestock. Also, forage area may include lake, pond or canal area used to grow water plants (water hyacinth, etc.) for fodder. Forage crop area includes alfalfa, elephant grass (xiangcao), etc. It excludes area used to grow grain to feed livestock (it is included in grain area statistics), although it includes grain area that is harvested for green silage use (green corn stems, etc.).

Forestry -- Forestry comprises the planting of various kinds of trees (tea plantations, mulberry fields and orchards excluded), collection of forestry products and cutting or felling of bamboo and trees.

Fruit -- Fruit statistics do not include area or output from wild orchards or trees, or any fruit-type melons (watermelon, honeydew melon, cantaloupe, muskmelon, etc.). Instead, all melons are included in either the melon category (fruit-type melons) or in the vegetable category (vegetable-type melons).

Goat Milk -- Goat milk output numbers are currently not available. The numbers presented are calculated as a residual -- total milk minus cow milk.

Grain -- Production figures for grain represent rough (unprocessed) weight. Potatoes are converted to grain equivalents on a 5:1 basis. Figures on total grain and potato production prior to 1964 have been adjusted to a consistent 5:1 dry weight grain basis. Official data for those years converted potatoes at a 4:1 rate. Beans are added based on weight after removal from pods and drying. The major grains (rice, wheat, corn, sorghum and millet) are calculated on a dry, rough (unprocessed, unmilled, or unhusked) weight basis. Corn output is calculated on a shelled (off the cob) basis. The definition for Total Grain Production lists the individual grains included. Grain consumption and trade data are reported on a trade weight basis.

Green Manure -- In China, green manure crop area statistics can include Chinese milk vetch (ziyunying), safflower grass (honghuacao), Chinese trumpet creeper (tiaozi), fragrant thoroughwort (lanhuacao), wild soybean (shanmaodou), and other miscellaneous plants used for green manure. Legume and rapeseed area for crops planted specifically for use as green manure are also included. If the crop was originally intended to be harvested, but the crop fails and the farmer decides to use it as green manure, then it continues to be counted under bean and rapeseed area.

Gross Value of Agricultural Output (GVAO) -- GVAO data for China are very difficult to use. There are a wide variety of definitions, depending on the source of the data, for what activities are and are not included in the statistics. Also, data available for 1984-85 shows that the statistics do not consistently differentiate between current prices and constant 1980 prices. A close comparison of current price GVAO and constant 1980 price GVAO data finds some provinces reporting identical numbers. Readers should see the specific footnotes below the GVAO tables for more information.

Huma -- In China, huma is used to produce an edible oil, huma you, almost indistinguishable from sesame oil (zhima you). Huma oil is the primary edible oil in China's northwestern provinces, which grow few other oilseeds for edible oil.

Investment -- Investment in agriculture is generally broken down into two categories: state budgetary expenditures on agriculture and agricultural capital construction investment (which covers construction, expansion, transformation and restoration projects, as well as purchases and installation of equipment). State budgetary investment primarily involves capital construction, rural production support and working capital. National agricultural capital construction investment, broken down by sector (crops, livestock, forestry, aquatics, water conservation, meteorology and services), includes investments by all levels of government (central, province, prefecture, county and township). Individual or collective (sometimes referred to as extrabudgetary) investment is excluded. At different times the definitions for agricultural investment changed, particularly with respect to investment in meteorological facilities.

Irrigated Area -- Irrigated area is level land that is effectively irrigated or has water sources and complete sets of irrigation equipment to lift and move adequate water to the fields under normal conditions.

Jute -- Jute (huanghong ma) statistics include ambary hemp (kenaf). Jute is separate from Indian hemp (da ma). It is not clear whether meng hemp (also known as Indian mallow or China jute) is included in jute or whether it is included in Indian hemp. Older jute series are reported on an unprocessed basis. More recent series are reported on a processed basis and have adjusted the older data to reflect the change.

Knits -- Data on knits or knitted goods includes both knitting wool and woolen knitwear.

Large and Medium Tractor -- The current definitions for large and medium tractors is 20 horsepower (hp) or more and small tractors is less than 20 hp. Previously, large tractors were 60 hp, medium tractors were 30-59 hp and small tractors were less than 29 hp. It is not clear when the change was made or if the old statistics have been adjusted to reflect this change.

Livestock -- Livestock statistics include all animals, whether used in agriculture or not, but exclude all aquaculture (cultured, freshwater, or saltwater).

Mixed Average Price -- Mixed average retail or procurement prices are an average of the fixed, negotiated and open market prices for a commodity, as well as an average of various standards, grades and qualities.

Multiple Crop Index (MCI) -- The multiple crop index (or MCI) is a common measure of the intensity of land use. It is the ratio of sown area to cultivated area, expressed as a percentage.

Mutton -- Mutton output statistics in China include both sheep and goat meat, though animal inventory statistics do provide separate sheep and goat data.

Oilseed Crops -- Oilseed crops, according to China's official definition, includes peanut, rapeseed, sesameseed, sunflowerseed, huma and other (a number of minor oilseeds). Soybean, cottonseed, and oil-bearing seeds and nuts from trees are excluded. Soybean, excluded from oilseed crops, are considered a grain crop in China's statistics.

Other Edible Oilseeds -- Other edible oilseed data are calculated as a residual. Other edible oilseeds likely includes such miscellaneous crops as castor bean, safflowerseed and perillaseed.

Other grains -- It is unclear exactly which grains make up the other grain category, although it probably includes barley, oats, buckwheat, proso millet, meng beans, broad beans, ormosia beans and an unknown number of other minor grains or legumes. Output is measured minus the pod and on a dry weight basis.

Peanut -- Peanut output statistics are calculated on a shelled, dry weight basis.

Population -- Population statistics include military personnel, but excludes Taiwan. Rural population refers to persons whose permanent residence is outside the jurisdiction of a city or a town. However, in 1982, 1984 and 1991, the definitions for rural and urban population were changed. With the 1991 change, the statistics were recalculated back to the year 1982. Data from 1949-81 remained unchanged.

Poultry meat -- Poultry meat output and consumption statistics include meat from all varieties of poultry (chicken, duck, goose, etc.).

Tubers (Potatoes) -- Tubers are considered a grain crop in China and are included in total grain production statistics. Includes both sweet potatoes and Irish potatoes, but, at least in recent years, excludes taro and cassava. Some Irish potato production is excluded. In some provinces, potatoes grown for use as vegetables are not counted as grain. Tuber statistics are converted to grain equivalents on a 5:1 dry weight grain basis. Tuber data prior to 1965 was converted on a 4:1 basis, so those years were adjusted to the new standard 5:1 equivalent basis.

Procurement -- Procurement data is usually presented either on a trade grain (milled) rather than a raw grain (unmilled) basis. The most inclusive category of procurement is total social procurement (shehui shougou) and includes all procurement by all types of government and non-government entities (supply and marketing cooperatives, authorized factories or processing plants, etc.). Two other somewhat less inclusive categories of procurement that are frequently encountered in the statistics are state commercial enterprise and supply and marketing cooperative procurement (quanmin suoyou shangye he gongxiao hezuoshe shougou) and total commercial procurement (shehui shangye shougou). It is unclear which of the two lesser categories is more inclusive than the other, though it is likely that total commercial procurement is the smallest of the three types.

Procurement Prices -- Procurement prices are the prices paid by the State to the peasant for certain targeted agricultural crops. These are generally reported as mixed average procurement prices and are based on a variety of standards, varieties and grades for each specific commodity.

Raw Grain -- A raw grain basis means that all the grains are in an unprocessed (unhusked) form. Generally speaking, production statistics are on a raw grain basis, while consumption, trade and procurement statistics are on a trade (processed) grain basis.

Red Meat -- Red meat output, including beef, pork and mutton, refers to carcass weight. In general, red meat statistics exclude heads, hooves and offal, but include bone.

Rice -- Rice includes water and dry-land variety rice. Rice grown in northern China is single crop late rice, also called Northern rice. Rice grown in southern China includes early rice, intermediate and single crop late rice, and finally, double crop late rice. Production of rice is generally measured on a dry, unmilled (or rough) weight basis.

Rural Labor Force -- China's rural labor force refers to the series originally reported by the SSB as rural collective and individual laborers (nongcun jiti he geti laodongzhe). Rural labor is broken down into farm work, rural industry, construction, transportation, commerce and miscellaneous occupations. Beginning in 1985, new definitions were used to compile rural and urban labor force statistics. These new definitions were then used to adjust the old data back to 1978. Also, in 1978 rural industrial labor at and below the village-level was shifted from agriculture to industry.

Shoes -- Data on shoes includes rubber, sports (athletic) and leather shoes.

Slaughter Rate -- The slaughter rate of livestock, a measure of the rate of slaughter of animal inventory, is calculated by dividing slaughter during a given year by the beginning inventory of that year.

Small Tractors -- Small tractors are currently defined as tractors with less than 20 horsepower. Formerly, this category included tractors with less than 29 horsepower.

Soybean -- Soybean includes the following varieties: yellow (huang), green (qing), black (hei) and others. Soybean production statistics are on a dry, out of pod weight basis.

Sugar -- Sugar statistics in China include processed cane sugar and beet sugar. The statistics are presented simply as "sugar" (tang). There is no further explanation. Although unconfirmed, officials in China have told USDA officers that sugar production and trade figures are reported on a refined rather than a raw weight basis. They also indicated that approximately 75 percent is white sugar and 25 percent is brown sugar.

Sugarbeet -- Production figures are on the basis of beet root weight (excluding leaves and stalks). All sugarbeet production is included in output statistics, no matter the ultimate enduse (produce sugar, use for livestock feed, or use as a vegetable, etc.).

Sugarcane -- Sugarcane production is computed on a cane stalk weight basis (excludes leaves). Output statistics include both sugarcane (tangzhe) and fruitcane (guozhe). Harvesting, carried out from the winter of the first calendar year to the spring of the next, is all included in the first year.

Tea -- Tea production statistics include all tea harvested, whether from cultivated area or wild tea plants. Tea production is calculated on a dry weight basis.

Tobacco -- Tobacco output is on a dry weight basis. China reports data for total tobacco leaf and the flue-cured portion. The remainder includes local tobacco varieties. "Other tobacco" is calculated by subtracting flue-cured tobacco from total tobacco.

Total Grain -- China's definition of total grain includes rice, wheat, corn, sorghum, millet, other miscellaneous grains, tubers (potatoes) and soybeans. Minor grains and pulses are included in the "other miscellaneous grains" category.

Total Oilseeds -- Total oilseeds includes peanuts, rapeseed, sunflowerseed, sesameseed, huma and other such miscellaneous oilseed crops as castor bean, safflowerseed and perillaseed. Soybeans, cottonseed and oil-bearing seeds and nuts from trees are not included.

Trade -- Data in the historical series are those from China's Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and Trade (MOFERT). Exports are now on a free on board (f.o.b.) basis while imports are on a cost, insurance, and freight (c.i.f.) basis. MOFERT data include all types of trade under the Ministry's jurisdiction, whether or not entering China's ports. The value added to goods imported, processed, and re-exported, such as labor costs and processing fees, is also included. But, MOFERT data exclude local trade not under its jurisdiction, trade of some joint ventures, and all individual dealings. MOFERT statistics also include aid commitments not yet delivered to China.

Statistics from China's Customs Administration, another set of slightly different trade statistics, became available in 1981.

These statistics differ from those of MOFERT. Particularly in the early 1980's, Customs numbers tended to be lower than MOFERT because coverage in some cases was more limited. However, as ever- increasing numbers of independent (non-MOFERT administered) trading enterprises have been established, Custom's statistics have grown to be larger than those provided by MOFERT. Statistics from the Customs Administration include trade only via China's ports and only customs-cleared aid donations. But, they include the full value of goods imported, processed, and re-exported. They also cover a broader range of imports and exports, including trade of local and provincial enterprises not reporting to MOFERT, all joint enterprises, and trade by individuals and firms.

Trade Grain -- Statistics on procurement and sales of grain are based reported on a trade grain basis. Trade grain is defined as unhusked rice and millet have been converted into husked forms according to standard conversion factors. Other grains (wheat, sorghum, etc.) remain in their unprocessed weight. Generally speaking, consumption, trade or procurement statistics are on a trade grain basis, while production statistics are on a raw grain (unprocessed) basis.

Vegetables -- Figures are only available for total vegetable area. As far as is known, China's statistical system does not collect vegetable production data. All area sown to vegetables and vegetable-type melons (cucumber, squash, pumpkin, winter melon, bitter melon, towel gourd, etc.) are included. Area sown to fruit- type melons (watermelon, cantaloupe, muskmelon, etc.) is excluded. Instead, fruit-type melon area is included in a separate melon category. Other items included in vegetable area statistics are fennel (aniseed), water-bamboo (jiaobei), taro (yutou), ginger (shengjiang), etc.

Winter Wheat -- Winter wheat production and area data is not published. However, it can be derived by subtracting published data on spring wheat from total wheat.

Wool -- Total wool production data include mohair (shanyangmao) and sheep wool (mianyangmao), but exclude cashmere (shanyangrong). Sheep wool output is broken down further, breaking out fine (60's count grade or higher) and semi-fine ( 36 to 58's count grade) wool output.

Yarn -- Yarn is the sum-total of cotton yarn, synthetic yarn and cotton-synthetic blended yarn. Only national level data is available for pure cotton yarn output.

Yellow Cattle -- Yellow cattle is a generic term for all of China's native cattle.

Suggested Readings

Agricultural Acreage in Communist China, 1949-68: A Statistical Compilation. Aug. 1969. (For information, contact the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, China Section.)

Agricultural Technical Economic Handbook Editing Committee. Nongye Jishu Jingji Shouce (Agricultural Technical Economic Handbook). Beijing, Nongye Chubanshe, May 1983.

Chen Nai-Ruenn. Chinese Economics Statistics. Aldin Publishing Company, Chicago, 1967.

Chern, Wen S., Wang Zhi and Julie Roemer. Database for Food Consumption in the People's Republic of China. Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, September 1989 (unpublished dataset).

China, Ministry of Agriculture and State Statistical Bureau. Nongye Tongji Baobiao Zhidu (Agricultural Statistical Reporting System). Sept. 1980. Printed text and tables presented to U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economics and Statistics Team. Tables translated by Frederick W. Crook and published in Planning and Statistical Systems in China's Agriculture (See Tuan, Francis C.). China, Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, and Fisheries. Statistics of China's Agriculture. Beijing, 1982 and 1983. China, Academy of Social Sciences, Trade and Economics Research Center, Editor. Nongchanpin Chengben yu Jiage Lunwenji (A Collection of Treatises on Agricultural Product Costs of Production and Prices). Beijing, Zhongguo Shehui Kexue Chubanshe, May, 1983. China, State Statistical Bureau, Department of Agricultural Statistics. Compilation of Experience in Rural Statistical Work at the Basic Level. Peking, Statistical Publishing House, 1956. China, State Statistical Bureau. Nongcun Tongji zai Gaige zhong Qianjin (Rural Statistics Improve in Reform). Beijing, 1987. Department of Agricultural Economics, National Agricultural Research Bureau. China's Agricultural Estimates, 1931-1946. Encyclopedic Yearbook Editing Committee. Zhongguo Baike Nianjian (China Encyclopedic Yearbook). 1980, 1981, and 1982 editions. Beijing, Zhongguo Da Baike Quanshu Chubanshe, Aug. 1980, July 1981, and Oct. 1982.

Government of India, Ministry of Food and Agriculture. Report of the Indian Delegation to China on Agricultural Planning and Techniques. New Delhi, Manager of Publications, July-August, 1956. Handbook of Agricultural Statistical Work Editing Committee. Handbook of Agricultural Statistical Work. Beijing, Statistical Publishing House, June 1956. Translated by American Consulate General, Hong Kong. "Agricultural Statistics in Communist China," Current Background. No. 434, January 15, 1957.

Heilongjiang Province, Mudanjiang Agricultural School, Editors. Nongye Kuaiji Jichu Zhishi (Elementary Agricultural Accounting Knowledge). Nongye Chubanshe, Beijing, Aug. 1979.

Jia Qi-yun. "Generate Enthusiasm and Progress toward Victory to Accomplish the Task of Establishing Agricultural Statistical Work in Rural Areas," Jihua yu Tongji (Planning and Statistics). No. 6, June 23, 1960, p. 8. Li Choh-ming. The Statistical System of Communist China. Berkeley and Los Angeles. University of California Press, 1962.

. "Statistics and Planning at the Hsien Level in Communist China," The China Quarterly. No. 9, January-March, 1962, pp. 112-123. Li Fei-tang. "A New Phase of Rural Statistical Work," Jihua yu Tongji (Planning and Statistics). No. 5, May, 1960, pp. 9-10. Ma Yu-hua. Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Editor. Tianjian Shiyan Hetongji Fangfa. (Field Experiments and Statistical Methods). Beijing, Nongye Chubanshe, September, 1979.

Manchoukuo Yearbook Company. The Manchoukuo Year Book, 1942. HsinKing, Manchoukuo, 1942.

Matsuda, Yoshiro. "Methods of Compiling Crop Statistics in China," Developing Economies. No. 3, Sept. 1965, pp. 323-342.

Sun Ye-fang. "Consolidate Statistical Work, Reform the Statistical System," Jingji Guanli (Economics and Management). No. 2, Feb. 1981; translated in Foreign Broadcast Information Service, No. 58, March 26, 1981, pp. L-4 to L-9.

Taylor, Jeffrey R., and Karen A. Hardee. Consumer Demand in China: A Statistical Factbook. Boulder, Colorado and London, Westview Press, 1986.

Tuan, Francis C., and Frederick W. Crook. Planning and Statistical Systems in China's Agriculture. FAER-181, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, April, 1981.

Weidade Shinian, Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Jingji he Wenhua Jianshe Chengxude Tongji (The Great Ten Years, Statistics on Economic and Cultural Construction Achievements of the People's Republic of China). Beijing, Renmin Chubanshe, September, 1959, English edition.

Zhang Min-ru and Xu Shu-geng. Nongye Tongji Jichu Zhishi (Basic Knowledge of Agricultural Statistics). Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 1981.

References

1. Agriculture Yearbook, Editing Committee. Zhongguo Nongye Jingji Zaiyao, 1983 (China Agriculture Economic Compendium, l983). Beijing, Nongye Chubanshe, April, l985.

2. Agriculture Yearbook, Editing Committee. Zhongguo Nongye Nianjian, l980 (China Agriculture Yearbook, l980). Beijing, Nongye Chubanshe, November, l98l.

3. Agriculture Yearbook, Editing Committee. Zhongguo Nongye Nianjian, l98l (China Agriculture Yearbook, l98l). Beijing, Nongye Chubanshe, July, 1982.

4. Agriculture Yearbook, Editing Committee. Zhongguo Nongye Nianjian, l982 (China Agriculture Yearbook, l982). Beijing, Nongye Chubanshe, September, l983.

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20. Almanac of China's Textile Industry, Editorial Board. Zhongguo Fangzhi Gongye Nianjian, 1990 (Almanac of China's Textile Industry, 1990). Beijing, Fangzhi Gongye Chubanshe, January, 1991.

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Databases available include: 

China: Basic Social and Economic Indicators (order #90010) 
China: Grain Statistics (order #90011) 
China: Fiber and Oilseed Statistics (order #90012) 
China: Economic and Other Crop Statistics (order #90013) 
China: Livestock Statistics (order #90014) 
China: Agricultural Input Statistics (order #90015) 
China: Agricultural Price Statistics (order #90016) 
China: Costs of Agricultural Production (order #90017) 
China: Agricultural Trade Statistics (order #90019) 
China: Consumption and Expenditure Statistics (order #90021) 

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