Counter visits from 160  countries and
----------- more than 1400 universities (details)

Puro Chile the memory of the people
Project for the First People's Century
Editor: Róbinson Rojas

Asia Policy Journal
Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific
Several years

Rich in information content, the Yearbook includes data, charts and a textual overview of well over 200 indicators, covering all spheres of the work of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, as well as such cross-cutting issues as poverty and gender.
The baseline year for the data is 1990 – intentionally the same as that for the Millennium Development Goals, so the Yearbook can also be used for tracking progress towards the Goals. The Yearbook uses the internationally comparable data available at the time of publication. For more recent estimates and forecasts, readers can also consult another ESCAP publication, the Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific. The publication can be downloaded, as a whole or in parts, from the ESCAP website at: Bookmark the site for your future reference, not least because it has a link to the Yearbook database, which includes full-length time series, including those that were used to derive numerous indicators.

Advancing Statistics for Development

From the Asian Development bank
Asia Development Outlook 2006
This 18th edition of the Asian Development Outlook provides a comprehensive economic analysis of 43 economies in developing Asia and the Pacific. Using the Asian Development Bank's unique knowledge of the region, it examines trends and prospects in Central Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific, in the context of global economic movements. An important theme is how developing Asia can best position itself to maximize the benefits of international trade.
Aggregate gross domestic product for the region expanded by a robust 7.4% in 2005. Growth was underpinned by a favorable external environment and by continuing progress on domestic reform issues. The People's Republic of China and India both grew rapidly.

The Asian Development Outlook, popularly known as the ADO, is a series of annual economic reports on the developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank. The ADO provides a comprehensive analysis of macroeconomic and development issues for the DMCs of ADB.

The ADO features:

  • an assessment of economic trends and prospects for the world and for the developing economies of Asia and the Pacific
  • economic profiles, economic management issues, development policy concerns, and economic projections, for the DMCs of ADB
  • theme chapter covering important issues confronting the region
Available issuesUpdate here
Asian Development Outlook 2012 Supplement: Sluggish Global Economy Weighs on Asia's Growth July 2012
Asian Development Outlook 2012: Confronting Rising Inequality in Asia April 2012
Asian Development Outlook 2011 Update: Preparing for Demographic Transition September 2011
Asian Development Outlook 2011: South-South Economic Links April 2011
Asian Development Outlook Special Note: Strength of Recovery in 2010 Is Exceeding Expectations December 2010
Asian Development Outlook Special Note: Developing Asia's Recovery Gains Momentum December 2010
Asian Development Outlook 2010 Update: The Future of Growth in Asia September 2010
Asian Development Outlook 2010: Macroeconomic Management Beyond the Crisis April 2010
Asian Development Outlook 2009 Special Note: Is Recovery Taking Hold in Developing Asia? December 2009
Asian Development Outlook 2009 Update September 2009
Asian Development Outlook 2009: Broadening Openness for a Resilient Asia March 2009
Asian Development Outlook Special Note: Developing Asia's Prospects in the Global Slowdown December 2008
Asian Development Outlook 2008 Update September 2008
Asian Development Outlook 2008: Workers in Asia April 2008
Asian Development Outlook 2007 Update September 2007
Asian Development Outlook 2007: Growth Amid Change March 2007
Asian Development Outlook 2006 Update October 2006
Asian Development Outlook 2006: Routes for Asia's Trades April 2006
Asian Development Outlook 2005 Update October 2005
Asian Development Outlook 2005: Promoting Competition for Long-term Development April 2005
Asian Development Outlook 2004 Update October 2004
Asian Development Outlook 2004: Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Asia April 2004
Asian Development Outlook 2003: Competitiveness in Developing Asia April 2003
Asian Development Outlook 2002 Update September 2002
Asian Development Outlook 2002: Preferential Trade Agreements in Asia and the Pacific April 2002
Asian Development Outlook 2001 Update November 2001
Asian Development Outlook 2001: Asia's Globalization Challenge April 2001
Asian Development Outlook 2000 Update September 2000
Asian Development Outlook 2000: The Social Challenge in Asia April 2000
Asian Development Outlook 1999: Economic Openness - Growth and Recovery in Asia April 1999
Asian Development Outlook 1998: Population and Human Resources April 1998
Asian Development Outlook 1996 and 1997: Regional Cooperation in Asia April 1997

From The World Bank - September 2006
Africa's Silk Road:
China and India's New Economic Frontier

China and India Breaking New Economic Ground in Africa; South-South Trade and Investment Create Imbalance, Opportunities
United Nations University
WIDER Conference on
Spatial Inequality in Asia
UNU Tokyo, 28-29 March 2003
Themes addressed by the conference:
- Spatial inequality in China
- Inequality and conflict
- Poverty and inequality in India
- Poverty in Asia
- Location and Migration
- Trade and inequality
- Spatial inequality in Asia
- Spatial inequalities in Former Soviet Union
From the Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank topics:
ADB focuses on various development issues to carry out its mission of reducing poverty in the Asia and Pacific region. Its projects, programs, policies, and strategies prioritize these areas, which aim to improve the lives of the 903 million people in the region who struggle to survive on less than US$1.25 a day.
 Overviews of key development issues.
Accountability Mechanism
Aid Effectiveness
Anticorruption and Integrity
Anti-money Laundering/ Combating Terrorist Financing
Bird Flu
Capacity Development
Clean Energy
Climate Change
Consultation and Participation
Debt Issuance
Disaster Risk Management
Economic Crisis
Financial Management and Analysis of Projects
Food Security
Gender and Development
General Capital Increase (GCI)
Health Sector
Human Trafficking
Independent Evaluation
Indigenous Peoples
Information and Communication Technology
Involuntary Resettlement
Knowledge Management
Law and Policy Reform
Managing for Development Results
Maternal, Newborn and Child Health
Millennium Development Goals
Nongovernment Organizations
Public Communications Policy Review
Poverty Reduction
Private Sector Development and Finance
Regional Cooperation
Social Development
Social Protection
Strategy 2020
Trade Finance Facilitation Program
Tsunami Response
Urban Development

Some case studies on the social effects of privatization:
Scarce transparency in services policies. It is expected that Bahrain, with increasing poverty and unemployment, will soon be the first Gulf Cooperation Council state to legislate privatisation. After beginning in a few sectors, such as transportation and sanitation, privatisation is expected to gain momentum and be extended to the ports and electricity production.
Corruption and mismanagement threaten jute mills. The jute sector was dominant in the economy in terms of manufacturing sector output, employment, and foreign exchange earnings. It contributed 87% of total merchandise export earnings at the time of the country’s independence. The change of government in 1975 paved the way for a change in the nationalisation policy and a process of privatisation was initiated. This report discusses the impact of the nationalisation and later privatisation of the jute mills on the national economy and on the jute workers. ATIUR RAHMAN ISMAIL HOSSAIN
The long road to poverty eradication. Despite official policy pronouncements and some genuine efforts to reform the health and education sectors, structural obstacles, most particularly low budgetary allocations and disbursement systems that are slow and not always transparent, block progress and have a debilitating effect on the quality and delivery of services. The deep structural macro-economic problems worsen year after year and paralyse the whole public health sector. Access to key natural resources are auctioned off to be commercialised, leading to further impoverishment of the population. THIDA C. KHUS
Erosion of rights and marketisation of development. The national development paradigm is a paradox. On the one hand, there is a professed commitment to meeting the Millennium Development Goals by respecting, protecting and fulfilling economic, social and cultural rights. On the other hand, there is clear policy prioritisation towards privatisation of services that affect the basic rights of the most marginalised, such as education, health, water and food distribution. In contrast with the «the language of rights», policy prescriptions push basic services away from the responsibilities and obligations of the State. JOHN SAMUEL BOBBY KUNHU
The money into the pockets of foreign companies. The political instability in the region, along with Jordan’s maturing economy, has prevented the domestic private sector from playing an integral role in privatisation and has opened the way for foreign investors to take over many previously public enterprises. As a result, profits made from privatised companies do not contribute to the Jordanian treasury, as structural adjustment continues to challenge welfare policies. Reduced public spending combined with low growth will increase poverty, which is already aggravated by high population growth. NATASHA SHAWARIB
To the detriment of women, children and the poor. The policy of structural adjustments has led to a sharp reduction of social expenditures and the collapse of the social services sector. Privatisation of social sector entities has failed. Firms offered for sale were not in good condition or in great demand, so investors did not bid on them. In addition, privatisation of health and education has reduced accessibility, and had a negative impact on the poor and on women and children in particular. SVETLANA SHAKIROVA MARA SEITOVA
Privatisation, conflict and discontent. Privatisation in Korea has aroused intense debate and inspired many citizen mobilisations. While voices from the government insist that privatisation will strengthen industrial competitiveness and resolve the ill-effects of monopolies, labour unions, civil society and academia cry out that it will drain national wealth through sales abroad, degrade public services and deepen social inequality. Since there is no precedent of a successful privatisation and restructuring process being carried out without social consensus, the government should try to take the advice of civic groups rather than follow its present course. PROF. KIM JIN SOO
Confronting the fiscal crisis through privatisation. The main reason for privatisation is fiscal. Government officials argue that it is the only way out of the debt trap. However, private firms only invest where they expect to make a profit. The private sector, by its nature, prioritises short-term profit over any other social benefit. All in all, the «public good» value of basic services is considered less important than their fiscal potential. ZEINA ABLA
The high cost of private monopolies. Privatisation policies have been limited to a small elite who took over profitable public utilities and turned them into private monopolies. On several occasions, the objective of reduced fiscal burden backfired, as the government had to pay higher costs to bail out failed privatisations. For consumers, price increases have not brought about benefits. There is a serious need to review the entire privatisation policies to make the process more accountable and transparent. MAGESWARI SANGARALINGAM MEENAKSHI RAMAN
Rockbottom economic status. Economic liberalisation began in 1992. The foreign investment policy endevoured to attract foreign private investment but undermined the national interest. Nepalese entrepreneurs with limited resources and technical capacity were unable to compete with foreign private investors and hence were negatively affected. Privatisation of education and health has created two distinct classes and has benefited the higher income groups, in a country where approximately 42% of the population live below the poverty line. SARBA RAJ KHADKA RAKHEE LOHANI
Extreme poverty, forced labour, «honour killings»… This report presents an overview of the dramatic Pakistani situation. Its 140 million people are among the world’s poorest. High population growth and low social spending have deteriorated healthcare, education, sanitation and drinking water. Non-Muslim minorities experience routine discrimination. Child and forced labour and violence against women, subject to the rule of «honour killings», are part of a general climate of restricted public freedoms. PROF. AIJAZ A. QURESHI MUSHTAQ MIRANI NASARULLAH THAHEEM SHAHEEN KHAN
Relying on others: provision of water and health care. Palestinian dependence on Israel for water and on the international community for healthcare services underscores the crippled state of Palestinian welfare and its subjugation to Israeli military decisions. This is not the result of shortcomings of the traditional development approaches (in particular the differing incentive and sanction structures behind state and market approaches to basic service provision1 ) but of Israeli military and government policy towards the West Bank and Gaza. IZZAT ABDUL-HADI THOMAS WHITE
The water case: increased rates for poorer services. In August 1997, the government-run facility that provided safe drinking water to 11 million Metro Manila residents, the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage Services (MWSS), was privatised. The MWSS story belies the claim that privatisation automatically provides additional funds to government or improves the efficiency and effectiveness of the management of companies. What it bolsters, however, is the concern that cost-recovery and profit-making are the primary goals of privatisation—even at huge economic and social costs to consumers and citizens. MA. VICTORIA R. RAQUIZA
The dark side of global markets. The 1997 economic crisis led to the privatisation of lucrative state enterprises as an IMF requirement to reduce the debt, which was largely incurred by the private sector. However, the multinational corporations have not benefited Thailand, but they have returned profits to their own countries. At present, it is vital to define, prioritise and achieve an equilibrium between democratic development and market mechanisms. In this process, civil society should play an active role in maintaining basic human values. RANEE HASSARUNGSEE
The Doi Moi policy and its impact on the poor. In December 1986, the government mandated the Doi Moi (open door) policy, shifting from a centrally planned economy to a market oriented one. The current trend shows growing inequality between the rural and urban population, and between the rich and the poor. Privatisation and liberalisation increased the social gap in the access to basic social services in general and to education and health in particular, and increased the vulnerability of the rural poor. TRAN THI QUE TO XUAN PHUC
Asia in crisis.....................................
World Bank report says record year for private capital flows is hurt by East Asian downturn, development aid to poor countries keeps falling (1998)
Social Crisis in Asia (World Bank)
W. Bello: Speculation, Foreign Capital Dependence and the Collapse of the Southeast Asian Economies
P. Krugman:
What happened in Asia?
Analytical Afterthoughts on the Asian Crisis
Balance sheets, the transfer problem, and financial crises
The energy crisis revisited
The Official Paul Krugman Web Page
The social impact of the Asian financial crisis (ILO)
Papers on the Asian Crisis (C.U.M.)
Asia's Economic Crisis (Asia Society)
What Caused Asia's Economic Crisis?.............New York University
1.Basic Readings and References on the Causes of the Crisis
2.Global Effects, Regional and Systemic Contagion Analysis
3.Country Analysis (Thailand, Hong Kong, South Korea, Malaysia,Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan, China, Japan)
4.The Debate on the Role of the IMF in the Crisis
5.Will the Crisis Spread to Other Regions of the World?
6.The Role of Financial Fragility and Systemic Risk
7.Other Episodes of Fixed Exchange Rate Collapse in the 1990s
8.The Debate on Fixed versus Flexible Exchange Rate
9.Sources of Official Data and Reports 10.News Sources
The Asian Crisis: A View from the IMF
How Has the Asian Crisis Affected Other Regions?
IMF Area Department Directors
Mitigating the Social Costs of the Asian Crisis
IMF Staff
The Asian Crisis: IMF Bail Outs: Truth and Fiction
Stanley Fischer: The Asian Crisis and the Changing Role of the IMF
Dai Xiaohua: 'East Asian Model': A few problems, but it works
From The World Bank - 18 Sept. 2006
An East Asian Renaissance: Ideas for Economic Growth
Advance Conference Edition
East Asia – a region that has transformed itself since the financial crisis of the 90s by creating more competitive and innovative economies – must now turn to the urgent domestic challenges of inequality, social cohesion, corruption and environmental degradation arising from its success.

Asia Times

National Bureau of Asian Research Analysis


China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Annual Conference Volume
The new book The "People" in the PLA: Recruitment, Training, and Education in China’s Military, edited by Roy Kamphausen, Andrew Scobell, and Travis Tanner, was officially released by NBR and the Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War College at a book launch event co-hosted by and held at the Brookings Institution on September 17. The event featured presentations by PLA experts from government and academia. Read a transcript from the event, learn more about the the conference, and download the book.


NBR Holds Groundbreaking Ceremony in Seattle's University District
NBR hosted a groundbreaking ceremony on August 4 at Eagleson Hall at the University of Washington to celebrate the construction of a building where NBR will be permanently housed. The new structure, to be named George F. Russell, Jr. Hall in honor of NBR’s longtime chairman, will be located at 4201 15th Avenue NE, in close proximity to the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs and the Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies and directly across the street from the University of Washington’s William H. Gates Hall. View Press Release.




Understanding China’s New Sovereign Wealth Fund
This issue of the NBR Analysis provides an analysis of the political and economic debates that led to the formation of CIC, outlines what is known about the corporation’s investment objectives and management structure, and details the domestic and foreign investments that CIC has undertaken to date. It also examines some of the specific concerns that have been raised about the potential risks posed by CIC to U.S. national interests and draws some preliminary conclusions about their validity. Order or download this issue.


Russian Energy Policy and Strategy
Growing global energy demand and rising energy prices provide essential context for Russia’s reemergence, simultaneously raising anxiety levels among the major consumer countries and raising confidence levels among the major producer countries. These tendencies have been especially apparent in Asia. Yet, as has been the case in many other periods of rapid change, neither the anxieties nor the confidence will likely prove fully justified. Such is the unambiguous message of the two important articles in this issue of the NBR Analysis. Order or download this issue.


Asia Policy 6
This latest issue of NBR’s journal Asia Policy features a policy Q&A with a panel of specialists on Islamic finance and a book review roundtable on David C. Kang's China Rising. Articles in this issue address generational change and political leadership in Japan and China, sea lane security in Southeast Asia, and China's management of the risks resulting from the country's rapid industrial development. Order or download Asia Policy 6.


Engaging Asia: U.S. Strategic Interests, Priorities, and Policy Tools
On May 22, 2008, NBR hosted senior policy leaders and experts in Washington, D.C., for the conference “Engaging Asia: U.S. Strategic Interests, Priorities, and Policy Tools.” Discussion focused on the ways that the U.S. might enhance its strategic engagement with this increasingly vital region of the world. Ambassador Christopher R. Hill, Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, U.S. Department of State, delivered closing remarks on challenges and opportunities for U.S.-Asia relations. Learn more about the conference.


The John M. Shalikashvili Chair in National Security Studies
On September 26, 2007, NBR announced the appointment of Admiral Dennis C. Blair to the John M. Shalikashvili Chair in National Security Studies. Admiral Blair will advance the study of national security issues and address critical U.S. interests in Asia through research projects, publications, conferences, and briefings to senior policymakers and business leaders. For more information on Admiral Blair and the John M. Shalikashvili Chair, click here.


Pyle Center for Northeast Asian Studies
On November 17, 2006, NBR dedicated the Kenneth B. and Anne H.H. Pyle Center for Northeast Asian Studies. The Center's inauguration featured a two-day international conference and a formal evening gala. The newly launched Pyle Center will conduct research on Northeast Asia to advance the comprehensive study of the region, particularly as it pertains to its security, political, and economic dynamics. Click on the link to view Professor Pyle’s keynote address.

Clasification of economies by income,1997-1998-World Bank
N. Islam: Growth, Poverty and Human Development in Pakistan, 1996
A. K. Shiva Kumar: Poverty and Human Development in India, 1996
Asian Studies WWW Virtual Library (A.N.U.)
Institute of Economic Research
Hitotsubashi University, Japan
Asian Historical Statistics Project

2006.8.30 Ryo Kambayashi, Daiji Kawaguchi and Izumi Yokoyama Wage Distribution in Japan: 1989-2003.
2006.8.22 Satoshi Shimizutani and Izumi Yokoyama Has Japan's Long-term employment Practice Survived? New Evidence Emerging Since the 1990s.
2006.8.16 Dale W. Jorgenson and Khuong Vu Information Technology and The World Growth Resurgence.
2006.8.7 Ryo Kambayashi and Yuko Ueno Vacancy Size and Offered Wage: A Source of Search Friction in The Japanese Labor Market, Kyoji Fukao, Young Gak Kim and Hyeog Ug Kwon Plant Turnover and TFP Dynamics in Japanese Manufacturing.
2006.8.1 Hiroaki Chigira and Taku Yamamoto A Bias-Corrected Estimation for Dynamic Panel Models in Small Samples, In Choi and Timothy K. Chue Subsampling-Based Tests of Stock-Return Predictability..
2006.7.31 Harry X. Wu The Chinese GDP Growth Rate Puzzle: How Fast Has the Chinese Economy Grown? .
2006.7.22 Robert Inklaar, Marcel P. Timmer and Bart van Ark Mind the gap! International comparisons of productivity in services and goods production .
2006.7.19 Tatiana A. Chief Estimation of Gross Social Product and Net Material Product in the USSR, Youri N. Ivanov On Compilation of Long Term Series of GDP for the Former USSR Republics, Kyoji Fukao, Keikok Ito, Hyeg Ug Kwon and Miho Takizawa Cross-Border Acquisitons and Target Firms' Performance: Evidence from Japanese Firm-Level Data.
2006.7.10 Workshop information was modified.
2006.7.03 Hak K. Pyo, Geun-Hee Rhee and Bongchan Ha Growth Accounting and Productivity Analysis by 33 Industrial Sectors in Korea (1984-2002) .
Vietnamese Economic Network
Southeast Asian Serials Index
United Nations Mission in East Timor
In defence of Marxism: Asia

ACCESSASIA Review E-Journal
Asian Development Bank
National Bureau of Asian Research
Singapore WWW Virtual Library
East Asian Studies Internet Resources

Mass Media on the Net..........I.O.L. Stockolm University
E.U. cooperation with Asia and Latin America......EUFORIC
Asian Educational Media Service
The Economic History of Eastern Asia
Taiwan Security Research
India Books
ASEAN InfoSite
Asian Institute of Technology
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific /U. N.

Asian Human Rights Commission
The Cambodian Genocide Program
Reporting Indonesia and Asia(U.S. embassy/Jakarta)
Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO)

Asia- Pacific News................BBC World Service
Far Eastern Economic Review

Read the REVIEW essays that won at the 2006 Society of Publishers in Asia awards:

"Finding China's Missing Farmers" by William MacNamara
November 2005
Winner of Excellence in Feature Writing

"Police Brutality in Papua New Guinea" by Zama Coursen-Neff
September 2005
Runner-up for Excellence in Human Rights Reporting

APEC. Research Information Network.    U. of B. C.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Secretariat

The Pacific
Middle East

Asia in crisis
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation- APEC
The World Bank: regions
One World News Service: Asia
Asian Development Outlook 2002
Countries A-H
Countries I-P
Countries Q-Z
A to Z
CIA World Factbook

Australian Development Gateway (Sustainable development through sharing knowledge)
(International Development Ethics Association)

Notes for lectures
Notes and papers

Global Value Chains
Integrated International

International Division of

Transnational Corporations
The Triad ( U.S.A, Japan, E.U.)

- Dependency Theory
- Planning for Development
- The Developmental State
- The Neo-liberal State
- Development Economics
- The future of development

- Foreign Direct Investment
- Factor Payments to Abroad
- The New Economy in

- International Trade

Back to Global Economic Prospects for Developing Countries

--World Investment Reports
---(the complete series)

--World Investment Reports
---(selected statistics)

-- Planning for Development
UNCTAD areas of work:
Globalization and Development
Development of Africa
Least Developed Countries
Landlocked Developing Countries
Small Island Developing States
International Trade and

Services Infrastructure
Investment, Technology and
Enterprise Development

The following databases on-line are available:
Commodity Price Statistics
Foreign Direct Investment
Handbook of Statistics
ICT Statistics
Millennium Indicators

Digital Library:
-- News
-- Main publications
-- UNCTAD Series
-- Basic documents
-- Issues in Brief
-- Newsletters
-- Statistical databases
-- Globalization and
----- Development Strategies

-- Economic Development in
----- Africa

-- International trade
-- Dispute Settlement - Course
----- Modules

-- Investment, Technology and
-----Enterprise Development

-- Services Infrastructure for
--- Development and Trade
----- Efficiency

-- Monographs on Port
----- Management

-- Technical Cooperation
-- Discussion papers
-- G-24 Discussion papers
-- Prebisch Lectures
-- Transnational Corporations
----- Journal

-- Publications Survey 2006-

Education for Sustainability
Postgraduate courses on Environment and Development Education at London South Bank University

- Part time distance learning
- Full time at the University

Come visit us at

World indicators on the environment
World Energy Statistics - Time Series
Economic inequality

Other related themes:
- Aid
- Bureaucracy
- Debt
- Decentralization
- Dependency theory
- Development
- Development Economics
- Economic Policies
- Employment/Unemployment
- Foreign Direct Investment
- Gender
- Human Rights
- Human Development
- Hunger
- Inequality/social exclusion
- Informal sector
- Labour Market
- Microfinance
- Migration
- Poverty
- Privatization
- State/Civil Society/

- Sustainable Development
- Transnational Corporations
- Urbanization

- Complete list of development themes

Puro Chile la memoria del pueblo
Proyecto para el Primer Siglo Popular

Director: Róbinson Rojas

Ensayos de  Pablo Bustelo, Clara García, Francisco García-Blanch, and Iliana Olivié

Updated: February 2003

A. Crisis financieras en Asia oriental

B. Recuperación económica en Asia oriental

C. China

D. Corea del Sur

E. Globalización financiera, crisis cambiarias y nueva arquitectura financiera internacional

F. España y Asia oriental


Puro Chile la mémoire du peuple
Projet pour le Premier Siècle Populaire

Editeur: Róbinson Rojas