Counter visits from more than 160  countries and 1400 universities (details)

The political economy of development
This academic site promotes excellence in teaching and researching economics and development, and the advancing of describing, understanding, explaining and theorizing.
About us- Castellano- Franšais - Dedication
Home- Themes- Reports- Statistics/Search- Lecture notes/News- People's Century- Puro Chile- Mapuche

World indicators on the environmentWorld Energy Statistics - Time SeriesEconomic inequality

from Beijing Review, January 2-8, 1995

CHINA's INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE (AND TRADE)

Over a long period of time, China has been limited by the division
between production and non-production departments, placed undue emphasis
on the development of industry, particularly the development of heavy
industry. As a result, tertiary industry has stagnated.

In 1960, the composition of primary, secondary and tertiary industries
stoo at 47:33:20. In 1978, the ratio changed to 28.4:48.6:23.1, with the
proportion of secondary industry increasing considerably, and that of
tertiary industry remaining basically unchanged. Between 1979 and 1993,
China's tertiary industry grew by 9.9 percent annually, somewhat higher
than the economic growth rate of 9.2 percent and the agricultural growth
rate of 5.1 percent. However, the figure remained lower than the 11.5
percent growth rate of secondary industry. By 1993, the ratio between
the three sectors had changed to 21:52:27, which, when compared with
1978, represented considerable changes in the ratios of the secondary
and tertiary sectors.
________________________________________________
            Primary  Secondary  Tertiary   Total
            Industry Industry   Industry
________________________________________________
1960           47.0     33.0       20.0     100
1978           28.4     48.6       23.0     100
1993           21.0     52.0       27.0     100
________________________________________________

IMPORT-EXPORT COMMODITIES AND REGIONAL COMPOSITION

Between 1981 and 1991, the average price for primary products on
international markets dropped by 31 percent. Falling prices for
minerals and fuel were more evident, with respective price drops of
41 percent and 43 percent. Prices for exports from developing countries
fell by 41 percent. During the same period, prices for finished products
jumped by 31 percent, with those from developing countries rising by
14 percent, and those from developed countries rising by a dramatic
53 percent. The most rapid rises were for machinery and electronic
products.

Between 1980 and 1992, the proportion of finished products in China's
export commodities increased by a wide margin, with the share of
machinery and electronic products up 9.4 percent to 24.7 percent. When
compared with changes in international market prices, the beneficial
aspects accruing to the Chinese side from the changing structure are
quite evident. China also increased its imports of finished products,
with the share of machinery and electronic products rising from 25.6
percent to 38.8 percent. Although the imports have basically satisfied
domestic demand for advanced machinery equipment, China has had to pay
more for finished products on the international market, due to dramatic
price rises for machinery and electronic products exported by developed
countries.

COMMODITY COMPOSITION OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS (%)
_________________________________________________
                       Exports     |   Imports
_________________________________________________
                    1980     1992  | 1980    1992
_________________________________________________
Primary products    49.7     18.3  | 34.8    16.4
Finished products   50.3     81.7  | 65.2    83.6
_________________________________________________

In terms of regional composition of imports and exports, China's trade
volume with Asian countries has developed rapidly, with the proportion
rising from 58.3 percent in 1984 to 66.5 percent in 1992. However, the
proportion with other regions has dropped by varying degrees as a result
of the rapid development of foreign trade with neighboring countries,
particularly East and Southeast Asia. This trend conforms to the
increasing proportion of foreign trade with Asian countries on the
international market. The proportion for developed countries, including
North America, Europe and Japan, fell from 59.3 percent to 44 percent,
thereby indicating that China's reliance on foreign trade with
developing countries has diminished.
________________________________________________________________________
World Ranking and Output of China's Major Industrial and Agricultural
                              Products
________________________________________________________________________
                                          Output       |     Rank
________________________________________________________________________
                                    1950   1978   1993 | 1950 1978 1993
________________________________________________________________________
Steel (10,000 tons)                   61   3178   8868 |  26   5    3
Coal (100 million tons)             0.43   6.18  11.41 |   9   3    1
Crude oil (10,000 tons)               20  10405  14400 |  27   8    5
Electricity (100 million kw)          46   2566   8200 |  25   7    3
Cement (10,000 tons)                 141   6524  36000 |   8   4    1
Cloth (100 million meters)            25   110.3   191 |   3   1    1
Cereals (10,000 tons)              11230  29085  40956 |   2   2    1
Cotton (10,000 tons)                  69    217    376 |   4   3    1
Rapeseed (10,000 tons)                68    187    695 |   2   2    1
Pork, beef and mutton (10,000 tons)  339*   856   3224 |   3   3    1
________________________________________________________________________
Note: * means 1952 figures.
Source: Figures released by the State Statistics Bureau.
________________________________________________________________________ 

Back