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The current power structure in the PRC is based on the constitution
approved by the 12th CCP National Party Congress held in September
1982. The central leading organs are:

    Elected by the National Party Congress. When the National Congress
    is not in session, the CC carries out decisions, directs the entire
    work of the Party, and represents the Party in its external

    Elected by the Central Committee in plenary session. When the
    Central Committee is not in session, these entities exercise its
    functions and powers. 14 members form the Politburo, among which
    6 are members of the Politburo Standing Committee.

    Elected by the Central Committee in plenary session; attends to the
    day-to-day work of the Central Committee under the direction of the
    Political Bureau and its Standing Committee. 12 members form the
    Secretariat of the CC.

    A member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau; elected
    by the Central Committee in plenary session. Responsible for
    convening the meetings of the Political Bureau and its Standing
    Committee and presides over the work of the Secretariat.

    Five members. Selected by the Central Committee.

    28 MEMBERS. A new organ first elected at the 12th National Party
    Congress as a means of replacing aged leaders with younger people.
    Acts as political assistant and consultant to the Central Committee
    and works under the leadership of the Central Committee. Members of
    the Commission must have Party standing of 40 years or more, have
    rendered considerable service to the Party, have fairly rich
    leadership experience and enjoy high prestige inside and outside
    the Party.

    Also a new entity established by the 12th National Party Congress.
    Elected by the National Party Congress; functions under the
    leadership of the Central Committee. Main tasks are to uphold the
    Constitution and other important rules and regulations of the
    Party and check up on the implementation of the Party's line,
    principles, policies and decisions. 25 members.

The practical division of authority is as follows:
    The Standing Committee commands the Politburo, and the Politburo
    commands the Central Committee.

In 1956, the Secretariat was established to handle the general
management of the party, leaving the Politburo to concentrate on key
policy questions. By 1985, the power of the Politburo had diminished,
and the Secretariat assumed much of its decision-making power. However,
in October 1987, the 13th Party Congress addressed the problem of
institutionalization of power at the top, and restored power to the
Politburo, downgrading that of the Secretariat.

The government administrative arm of the party is the State Council,
headed by the prime minister. When the power of the Politburo had
temporalily eroded, the state council's power greatly expanded,
especially in the management of economic affairs and particularly under
Zhao Ziyang (1987-1989).

The Chinese Communist Party has long accepted the concept of leadership
by seniority, also known as leadership by "lines". The top leadership
group is divided into the "first line" leaders, of age between 50 to 70,
who manage the day-to-day work of the party, including some policy
formulation; and the "second line" leaders, of age between 70 to 80, who
are involved in major issues of strategy and policy. In 1962, for
example, when all three were in their late 50s and 60s, Liu Shaoqi
presided over the Politburo, and Deng Xiaoping headed the Secretariat,
to form the "first line"; while Mao Zedong, retreated to the "second
line". In 1980, Deng retired from the "first line" by relinquishing
his post as first vice prime minister, and other posts including
chairmanship of the Central Military Commission.

Originally, after 1956, the Politburo for the most part exercised
administered control through three channels:
 1.- The Secretariat for party management;
 2.- The State Council for government administration and policy
     implementation, and
 3.- The Central Military Commission for People's Liberation Army.

Before the 13th Party Congress in 1987, the leadership consensus, with
the Politburo at the core, split apart as each of the three powerful
institutional hierarchies went its own way, resulting in a lack of
institutional procedures for the regulation and coordination of the
political power held by the general secretary, the prime minister, and
the army. The 13th Party Congress tried to address the problem by
restoring decision-making power to the Politburo, composed largely of
first line leaders, and downgrading the Secretariat.
END OF BOX 1____________________________________________________________


Select List of People's Republic of China, compiled by the
Joint Committee, Congress of the United States, June 1992

Relatives Holding Important Positions

Bo Yibo (Vice chairman, CCP Central Advisory Commission)
  Sons: Bo Xicheng (Director, Administrative Bureau of Travel
        and Tourism of Beijing City)
        Bo Xilai (Vice mayor, Dalian City, Liaoning Province)
        Bo Quan (General manager, White Peacock Arts and Crafts
        Company, Beijing)
  Son-in-law: Jia Chunwang (Minister, Ministry of State Security)

Chen Yi (Former Minister, Ministry of Foreign Affairs; former mayor
         of Shanghai)
  Son: Chen Haosu (Vice minister, Ministry of Radio, Film and

Chen Yun (Chairman, CCP Central Advisory Commission)
  Son: Chen Yuan (Member, Standing Committee, Beijing Municipal
       Chinese Communist Party; CCP Beijing Municipal Party Secretary)

Deng Xiaoping (Former Chairman, CCP Central Advisory Commission)
  Sons: Deng Pufang (President, The Welfare Fund for Handicapped;
        former Chairman, Kanghua Trading Company)
        Deng Zhifang (Ph.D. in physics, University of Rochester;
        Deputy General Manager, China International Trust and
        Investment Corporation -CITIC)
  Daughters: Deng Nan (Bureau Director, State Science and Technology
             Deng Rong or Xiao Rong (Director, Foreign Affairs Committee
             of the National People's Congress; Deputy Director,
             Personnel Office, General Staff Headquarters, People's
             Liberation Army -PLA)
  Sons-in-law: He Ping (President, Poly Technologies, Inc.; former
               Assistant Military Attache, Embassy of the PRC to the
               United States; Deng Rong's husband)
               Wu Jianchang (General Manager, China's Nonferrous Metals
               Import and Export Corporation)
               Zhao Baojiang (Mayor of Wuhan City and Deputy CCP Party
               Secretary of Wuhan) Zhao visited the United States with
               the Mayors Delegation in July, 1990.

He Changgong (High ranking PLA officer; former president, CCP Society
              on Historical Figures)
  Son: He Qizong ( Deputy Chief of Staff, PLA General Staff Department)

He Long (Marshal; former Vice premier; former Vice chairman, Central
         Military Commission)
  Son: He Pengfei (Director, Armament Department, PLA's General Staff

Hu Qili (Former Standing Committee Member of the CCP's Politburo;
         CCP Central Committee member)
  Sister: Hu Qiheng (Director, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy
          of Sciences; Vice president, Chinese Academy of Sciences)

Hu Yaobang (Former General Secretary, Chinese Communist Party)
  Son: Hu Liu (Deputy Department Director, Ministry of Foreign Economic
       Relations and Trade) Visited the United States with a Chinese
       Purchasing Delegation in October 1990. He is the Deputy Director
       of the Technology Import and Export Department.

Li Desheng (Political Commissar, National Defense University; member,
            CCP's Central Advisory Committee)
  Son: Li Nanzheng (Chief, General Staff of Shenyang Military District)

Li Fuchun (Former Vice premier, State Council)
  Son: Li Changan (Deputy Secretary-General, State Council)

Li Peng (Premier, State Council)
  Wife: Zhu Li (General Manager of a company in South China)
   Son: Li Yang (Vice president, The Industrial Development Company,
        Hainan Province)

Li Weihan (Former Vice chairman, CCP Central Advisory Commission; former
           head CCP's United Front Department)
  Son: Li Teiying (Member of CCP's Politburo; Chairman, State Education
       Commission; State Councillor)

Li Xiannian (Chairman, Chinese People's Political Consultive Conference)
  Daughter: Li Haifeng (Secretary, CCP's Shijiazhuang Municipal
            Committee, Hebei Province)

Liao Chengzhi (Former Director of Hong Kong and Macao Office of the
               State Council)
  Son: Liao Hui (Director, Office of Overseas Chinese Affairs, State

Liu Shaoqi (Former President, People's Republic of China)
  Sons: Liu Yuan (Deputy Governor of Henan Province; Member, Standing
        Committee, CCP, Henan Province)
        Liu Zhen (Vice mayor, Qingdao City)
  Brother-in-law: Wang Guangying (President, Everbright Industrial
                  Corporation, Hong Kong)

Nie Rongzhen (Marshal; former Vice chairman, CCP's Central Military
  Daughter: Nie Li (Vice chairman, Science and Technology Committee,
            Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National
  Son-in-law: Ding Henggao (Minister and chairman, Commission of
              Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense)

Peng Zhen (Former chairman, Standing Committee of the National People's
           Congress; former mayor of Beijing)
  Daughter: Peng Peiyun (Director, State Family Planning Commission;
            Member, CCP central Commission for Discipline Inspection)
  Sons-in-law: Wang Hanbin (Member, CCP Central Committee; Vice
               chairman, National People's Congress; Chairman, Committee
               on Law, National People's Congress)
               Zhang Boxing (Member, CCP Central Committee; Party
               Secretary, CCP Shanxi Provincial Party Committee)

Qiao Guanhua (Former Minister, Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
  Son: Qiao Zonghui (Deputy Secretary general, Hong Kong Xinhua
       News Agency)

Song Renqiong (Vice chairman, Central Advisory Commission)
  Son: Song Ruixiang (Deputy Secretary of CCP, Qinghai Province and
       Governor of Qinghai Province)

Tao Zhu (Former Vice primer, State Council)
  Daughter: Tao Siliang (Deputy Director, Sixth Bureau, CCP's United
            Front Departament)

Tian Jiyun (Vice premier; Member, CCP Politburo)
  Brother: Tian Tizhen (Mayor, Xinxiang City, Henan Province)

Ulanfu (Former Vice-president, People's Republic of China)
  Sons: Buhe (Chairman, People's Government of Inner Mongolia
        Autonomous Region)
        Wujie (Mayor, Huhehote City, Inner Mongolia)

Wang Bingqian (Minister, Ministry of Finance; State Councillor,
               State Council)
  Son: Wang Hui (Mayor, Datong City, Shanxi Province)

Wang Zhen (Vice president, People's Republic of China)
  Sons: Wang Jun (Vice chairman, China International Trust and
        Investment Corporation; Chairman, Planning Commission,
        Beijing City)
        Wang Zhi (General Manager, Great Wall Computer Corporation,

Xi Zhongxun (Vice chairman, National People's Congress)
  Sons: Xi Zhengning (Deputy Director, CCP's Organizational Department,
        Shanxi Province)
        Xi Zhengping (Party secretary, Ningde District, Fujian
  Son-in-law: Chen Guangyi (CCP Party Secretary, Fujian Province)

Xiao Jinguang (Former Navy Commander, People's Liberation Army)
  Son: Xiao Congci (CCP Party Secretary, Datong City, Shanxi Province)

Yang Dezhi (General; Former chief of the PLA General Staff Department)
  Nephew: Yang Xizong (Member, Central Committee, CCP; CCP Secretary,
          Henan Province; Chairman, Henan Provincial People's Congress)

Yang Shangkun (President of the PRC; First Vice chairman, CCP Central
               Military Commission)
  Brother: Yang Baibing (Secretary general, CCP Central Military
           Commission; Director of the PLA General Political Department)
  Nephew: Yang Shaojun (Commander, 27th Army)

Ye Jianying (Marshal; former Vice chairman of the Central Military
  Son: Ye Xuanping (Governor of Guangdong Province; CCP Deputy Party
       Secretary of Guangdong Province)
  Daughter: Ye Chumei (former Vice minister, Commission of Science,
            Technology, and Industry of National Defense)
  Son-in-law: Zou Jiahua (State Councillor, Ministry of Machine Industry
              and Electronics)
  Daughter-in-law: Wu Xiaolan (Former Vice mayor, Shenzhen City)

Zhang Aiping (former Minister of Defense)
  Son: Zhang Haoruo (Bureau Director, State Council, CCP Party Deputy
       Secretary, Sichuan Province; Governor, Sichuan Province)
  Son-in-law: Yu Zheng-sheng (Mayor, Yantai City, Shandong Province)

Zhao Ziyang (Former General Secretary, Chinese Communist Party)
  Son: Zhao Dajun (Former Haihua Development Corporation, Hainan
  Daughter: Zhao Liang (Assistant Manageress, Sheraton Great Wall
            Hotel, Beijing)
  Son-in-law: Wang Zhihua (Former General Manager, Poly Technologies
END OF BOX 2____________________________________________________________


notes on the PLA's commercial empire (Robinson Rojas)

Highly centralized gigantic "corporation" with the Central
Military Commision as the "board"

                            | a) People's Armed Police
                            | b) General Logistic Department
                            | c) Commission on Science, Technology and
                            |    Industry for National Defense (COSTIND)
Central Military Commission |
                            | d) General Political Department                      
                            | e) General Staff Department

a) In charge of internal security, riot control. In charge also of
   Jingan Equipment Import-Export (CJA EQUIP.), trading in small
   arms, riot control, and security equipment. And in charge of
   CHINA ANHUA DEVELOPMENT, which operates about 70 enterprises

b) In charge of the manufacture and distribution of military supplies.
   Main commercial outlets:
   SANJIU ENTERPRISES: trading in herbal medicines and owning around
                       100 enterprises in the Shenzhen Economic Zone.
                       Main partners: Citibank's Citicorp Everbright
                       investment fund, which also holds 2% stake in
                       Nanfang Pharmaceuticals;
   CHINA XINXING GROUP: clothing, shoes, arms, and cosmetics for
                        military and civilian markets. Controls nearly
                        100 companies, with subsidiaries in Hong Kong,
                        Moscow and Los Angeles.

c) Oversees advanced technology and defense-conversion enterprises.
   Main commercial outlets:
                        satellites. Partner: Baskin-Robins ice cream (!)
   GALAXY NEW TECHNOLOGY: main partner: St. Louis-based BROOKS TELECOM
                          in Guangzhou
   CHINA XINSHIDAI CORP. (NEW ERA): is a holding compnay selling a wide
                          array of products, including weapons

d) In charge of ideology to ensure party control of rank and file.
   Main commercial outlets:
   TIANCHENG CORPORATION: concentrates on real state and coal mining
   CARRIE ENTERPRISES(KAILI): trade, real state development, electronics,
                          restaurants, and a chain of karaoke bars. Is
                          active in Australia and Hong Kong. Partners:
                          HongKong Macau International (Holdings)

e) Commands military combat operations. 
   Main commercial outlets:
   CHINA POLY GROUP: international trade, real state, and infrastructure
                     projects. Partners: Kumagai (Hong Kong), Cheung
                     Partners: State phone monopoly in the mainland,
                     Star Telecom, IWC
   CHINA HUITONG: factories, research laboratories, and hotels.
                  Partners: Peninsula Hotels, and KUMAGAI (Hong Kong)

ITEM: the Central Military Commision is the supreme military organ and
      is chaired by President Jiang Zemin (the commission have nine
      Roughly, the PLA owns 20,000 companies which in 1995 made profits
      of 2-3 billion US dollars 
      IWC = International Wireless Communications, based in San Mateo,
      California. IWC invested between 20 and 48 million US$ in a
      Star Telecom subsidiary in Hong Kong to help the PLA build new
      cell phone networks.
      CHINA XINXING GROUP: they began by making uniforms for soldiers,
      then moved into consumer textiles, and in 1996 owned some 60
      domestic factories that make everything from chemicals to
      automobiles to specialty steel, claiming total manufacturing
      revenue of more than US$ 1.2 billion and group pretax profits of
      US$ 122 million. Other assets include a chain of hospitals,
      real estate development concerns, hotels, and offices in 
      Los Angeles, Moscow, Singapore, and the Middle East.
      XINXING GROUP published a bilingual company brochure, available
      in London (China's embassy), which says: "Abundant resources as
      land, equipment, and inexpensive labour provide more business
      opportunities for investors" (in China)..."Xinxing Group looks
      forward to establishing extensive economic and trade relations
      and technical cooperation with investors from home and abroad

END OF BOX 3____________________________________________________________