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This version of the tables contained in World Development Indicators 1999
was prepared by Dr. Róbinson Rojas as a resource for his undergraduate
and postgraduate students.
Addenda 2016: WDI 1999/2000 English PDF
From the World Bank Group

World Development Indicators 1999

This site contains some of the contents of the World Development Indicators book and the World Bank Atlas, in page-image format (Acrobat files). Also available here is information about the CD-ROM, a page for questions and answers, contact numbers, and other background information. If you have any questions or comments, we'd be pleased to hear from you at

Like the previous editions, the 1999 WDI presents 600 indicators in 83 tables, organized in six sections: world view, people, environment, economy, states and markets, and global links. The tables cover 148 economies and 14 country groups—with basic indicators for a further 62 economies.

Most of the text from the book is presented here, but only a sampling of the tables from each section is available.

Table of contents documentation
Users Guide

Managing a crisis to protect the poor. In 1998 the economic engines that powered the East Asian miracle ran out of steam, setting off a chain reaction across the globe. Millions had their incomes plummet. Some lost their jobs, while others worried about losing theirs. Ethnic conflict and food riots broke out in Indonesia, and students took to the streets, toppling a president who had been in power for 32 years. Farmers protested in Thailand, and workers marched in the Republic of Korea.
Table 1_1 Size of the economy
Table 1_2 Development Progress
Table 1_3 Gender Differences
Table 1_4 Trends in long-term economic development
Table 1_5 Long-term structural change
Table 1_6 Key indicators for other economies

Education for all? Not yet. In 1990 five international agencies—the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and the World Bank—sponsored a landmark international meeting in Jomtien, Thailand: the World Conference on Education for All. Two goals recommended by the conference—universal primary education and gender equality of enrollments in primary and secondary education—were included in the core set of international development goals proposed in Shaping the 21st Century (OECD 1996c) and have been adopted by many organizations, including the World Bank.
Table 2_1      Population
Table 2_2      Population dynamics
Table 2_3      Labour force structure
Table 2_4      Employment by economic activity
Table 2_5      Unemployment
Table 2_6      Wages and productivity
Table 2_7      Poverty
Table 2_8      Distribution of income or consumption
Table 2_9      Education inputs
Table 2_10   Participation in education
Table 2_11   Education outcomes
Table 2_12    Gender and education
Table 2_13    Health expenditure, services, and use
Table 2_14    Access to health services
Table 2_15   Reproductive health
Table 2_16    Health: risk factors and future challenges
Table 2_17   Confronting AIDS
Table 2_18   Mortality

Toward a measure of sustainability. Many of the key indicators in the Economy section are derived from a consistent framework, the System of National Accounts, which relates to a specific body of macroeconomic theory. This is a great source of strength for those indicators, because there is considerable understanding of how one economic aggregate relates to another. Many traditional environmental indicators, by contrast, have no similar integrating framework. The Pressure-State-Response framework is at first glance causal: human activities place pressure on the environment, leading to changes in the environmental state that ultimately produce human responses. But this causality breaks down as soon as there is aggregation of indicators or sufficient complexity in the causes of environmental change.
Table 3_1     Land use and deforestation
Table 3_2    Agricultural inputs
Table 3_3    Agricultural output and productivity
Table 3_4    Biodiversity and protected areas
Table 3_5    Freshwater
Table 3_6    Water pollution
Table 3_7    Energy production and use
Table 3_8    Energy efficiency and emissions
Table 3_9    Sources of electricity
Table 3_10   Urbanization
Table 3_11  Urban environment
Table 3_12  Traffic and congestion
Table 3_13  Air pollution
Table 3_14   Government commitment
Table 3_15  Toward a measure of genuine savings

The weakening world economy. The financial crises that spread from East Asian countries reduced aggregate GDP by an estimated 8 percent in the five countries most affected—Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. A long-maturing domestic financial crisis contributed to a 2-3 percent fall in output in Japan—further dimming prospects for neighboring countries and greatly magnifying the deflationary shock from Asia to the rest of the world. Weakening world demand fostered steep price declines for oil and other primary commodities, inflicting income losses on commodity exporters in every region. Low oil prices combined with the effects of policy and institutional weaknesses in Russia to provoke a run on the ruble, culminating in a default on foreign debt.
Table 4_1   Growth of output
Table 4_2    Structure of output
Table 4_3    Structure of manufacturing
Table 4_4    Growth of merchandise trade
Table 4_5    Structure of merchandise exports
Table 4_6    Structure of merchandise imports
Table 4_7    Structure of service exports
Table 4_8    Structure of service imports
Table 4_9    Structure of demand
Table 4_10 Growth of consumption and investment
Table 4_11 Structure of consumption in PPP terms
Table 4_12 Relative prices in PPP terms
Table 4_13 Central government finances
Table 4_14 Central government expenditures
Table 4_15 Central government revenues
Table 4_16 Monetary indicators and prices
Table 4_17 Balance of payments current account
Table 4_18 External debt
Table 4_19 External debt management

Why governance matters. The financial crisis in East Asia has shown that governance can be a problem even in miracle economies with high education levels, admirable investments in health care, good macroeconomic fundamentals, outward-looking policies, and solid infrastructure. There, as elsewhere, inadequately supervised financial systems, poor accounting standards, and public and private corruption have contributed to a temporary reversal of fortunes.
Table 5_1      Credit, investment, and expenditure
Table 5_2      Stock markets
Table 5_3      Portfolio investment regulation and risk
Table 5_4      Financial depth and efficiency
Table 5_5      Tax policies
Table 5_6      Relative prices and exchange rates
Table 5_7      Defense expenditures and trade in arms
Table 5_8      State-owned enterprises
Table 5_9      Transport infrastructure
Table 5_10   Power and communications
Table 5_11   The information age
Table 5_12    Science and technology

Trade. The past half century has brought unprecedented prosperity and better living standards to most parts of the world. World GNP rose from $1.3 trillion in 1960 to $29 trillion in 1997. The liberalization and rapid expansion of trade have underpinned this remarkable achievement. Between 1987 and 1997 world trade nearly doubled, and the ratio of trade to GDP in purchasing power parity dollars rose from 20.6 to 29.6 percent. Trade in services is growing even faster, aided by the revolution in telecommunications and computers. World service exports, having more than tripled from $392 billion in 1980 to $1.4 trillion in 1997, now amount to a quarter of world merchandise exports (see table 4.7). Not all countries have integrated at the same pace, however. Growth in real volumes of trade ran below that of GDP in 44 of 93 developing countries in 1985–94, including many of the poorest.
Table 6_1     Integration with the global economy
Table 6_2     Direction and growth of merchandise trade
Table 6_3     OECD trade with low- and middle-income economies
Table 6_4     Primary commodity prices
Table 6_5     Regional trade blocks
Table 6_6     Tariff barriers
Table 6_7     Global financial flows
Table 6_8     Net financial flows from Development Assistance Committee members
Table 6_9     Aid flows from Development Assistance Committee members
Table 6_10  Aid dependency
Table 6_11   Distribution of net aid by Development Assistance Committee members
Table 6_12  Net financial flows from multilateral institutions
Table 6_13  Foreign labour and population in OECD countries
Table 6_14  Travel and tourism

Statistical methods
Primary data documentation
Acronyms and abbreviations
Index of indicators