Counter visits from more than 160  countries and 1400 universities (details)

The political economy of development
This academic site promotes excellence in teaching and researchingeconomics and development, and the advancing of describing, understanding, explaining and theorizing for planning for development.
About us- Castellano- Français - Dedication
Home- Themes- Reports- Statistics/Search- Lecture notes/News- People's Century- Puro Chile- Mapuche

From The World Bank Group Documents and Reports Archive
World Development Reports by The World Bank Group - the complete series
-----------------------------------------The Complete World Development Report Online

World Development Report Background Papers
World Development Report 2014
Risk and opportunity. Managing risk for development

Complete Report 2014  

Select Indicators:
General notes
Classification of economies by region and income, FY2014
Table 1 Key indicators of development
Table 2 Key indicators of development for other economies
Table 3 Selected risk indicators
Table 4 Selected indicators related to risk management at the household level
Table 5 Selected indicators related to risk management at the enterprise sector level
Table 6 Selected indicators related to risk management at the financial sector level
Table 7 Selected indicators related to risk management at the macroeconomy level
Table 8 Natural disasters and climate change indicators
Table 9 Global temperature anomalies: Difference relative to 1951–80
Table 10 Aid commitments
Technical notes

Messages: English | Español | Français | عربي | Русский | português | 中文

Overview: English | Español | Français | عربي | Русский | português | 中文

The past 25 years have witnessed unprecedented changes around the world—many of them for the better. Across the continents, many countries have embarked on a path of international integration, economic reform, technological modernization, and democratic participation. Although challenges and inequalities remain, economies that had been stagnant for decades are growing, people whose families had suffered deprivation for generations are escaping poverty, and hundreds of millions are enjoying the benefits of improved living standards and scientific and cultural sharing across nations. As the world changes, a host of opportunities arise constantly. With them, however, appear old and new risks, from the possibility of job loss and disease to the potential for social unrest and environmental damage. If ignored, these risks can turn into crises that reverse hard-won gains and endanger the social and economic reforms that produced these gains. The solution is not to reject change in order to avoid risk but to prepare for the opportunities and risks that change entails. Managing risks responsibly and effectively has the potential to bring about security and a means of progress for people in developing countries and beyond.

Part I: Fundamentals of risk management

Chapter 1: Risk management can be a powerful instrument for development

When food prices spiked in 2008, riots broke out in more than a dozen countries in Africa and Asia. As food prices, particularly bread prices, continued to rise in the Arab Republic of Egypt, Rashad Fahti, a factory worker, struggled to feed his wife and four children on his monthly salary of $34.1 A continent away, in Indonesia, the village of Montei Baru-Baru lost more than one in five residents—67 people—when it was hit by a large tsunami that followed an earthquake in 2010.2 Globally, in the aftermath of the 2008–09 global financial crisis, an estimated 53 million additional people will remain stuck in extreme poverty by 2015 who otherwise would not have been so poor.3 The major economic crises and natural disasters that have occurred in recent years underscore how vulnerable people are to systemic risks, which cut across large groups of people—especially in developing countries.

Chapter 2: Beyond the ideal: Obstacles to risk management and ways to overcome them

Nearly every year, Mumbai is hit by heavy rains, and for years, reports have spelled out precisely what to do to reduce the risk of flooding. Twenty years ago, a master plan (the Brimstowad Report) provided a list of recommendations to make the city more resilient to floods, and nearly $200 million was approved to implement the plan. But 12 years after the report was published, in 2005, only a fraction of this sum had been spent. Then an exceptional monsoon event hit the city. Almost half the average yearly rainfall fell in a single day, leaving in its wake more than 400 deaths and extensive damages to buildings and infrastructure. After the 2005 devastation, the government established a fact-finding committee (the Chitale Committee) to investigate the causes of the disaster and propose solutions. Perhaps not surprisingly, their recommendations were very similar to those of the Brimstowad Report. These measures were supposed to be implemented by 2015. But as of 2012, only about one-fourth of the 58 projects in the 1993 Brimstowad Report had been completed, while the tendering process for four major projects had not even begun.1 The city remains highly vulnerable to the heavy rains that occur almost every year, despite well-identified solutions to reduce the risk

Selected World Development Indicators (various years)

World Development Reports (complete series)
(in construction)

Related themes:
Related themes:
- Agrarian policies
- Agribusiness

- Aid
- Bureaucracy
- Debt
- Decentralization
- Dependency theory
- Development
- Development Economics
- Economic Policies
- Employment/Unemployment
- Foreign Direct Investment
- Gender
- Human Rights
- Human Development
- Hunger
- Inequality/social exclusion
- Informal sector
- International Trade
- Integrated International

- Labour Market
- Microfinance
- Migration
- Poverty
- Privatization
- State/Civil Society/

- Sustainable Development
- Transnational Corporations
- Urbanization

- Complete list of development themes