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The political economy of development
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Published by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development - UNCTAD

FDI Policies for Development: National and International Perspectives

The World Investment Report 2003 focuses on the foreign direct investment (FDI) downturn, its reasons and the role of national policies and international investment agreements (IIA) in attracting FDI to a country and for a country to benefit from it.
Part One discusses the overall trends in FDI. FDI flows have dropped drastically and no rebound is expected in 2003. The reasons for the downturn are discussed from a global perspective, as well as by region - developed countries, Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Central and Eastern Europe.
Part Two focuses on key issues that straddle national FDI policies and international investment agreements with a view to bringing out the development dimension. Special attention is given to the rise of IIAs, the right to regulate, home country measures and corporate social responsibility.
The report includes a statistical annex of over 100 pages.

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Table of contents - Preface - Acknowledgements
Overview in:

FDI falls again - unevenly

Chapter I
[PDF, 31pp., 2466KB]
FDI down 21% globally
A. The downturn continues
B. The unevenness of the downturn
C. Performance Index captures the downturn´s unevenness
D. Why the downturn?
E. Softening the impact
F. Towards mega blocks?
G. Prospects
Chapter II
[PDF, 49pp., 632KB]
Uneven performance across regions
A. Developing countries
B. Central and Eastern Europe
C. Developed countries
Enhancing the development dimension of the International Investment Agreement

INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS UNCTAD has been working on issues related to bilateral and regional investment agreements for some time, focusing on policy analysis and technical cooperation,a and involving a wide range of countries. WIR03 draws on this experience. With the number of treaties that address FDI proliferating, issues relating to international investment agreements (IIAs)— agreements that, in their entirety or in part, address investment issues—have come to the forefront of international economic debate.
Part Two of WIR03 seeks to throw light, from the development perspective, on certain issues that arise in IIAs— irrespective of the ongoing multilateral investment discussions. Whether governments negotiate IIAs—and, if so, at what level and for what purpose—is their sovereign decision. And whatever the outcome of the investment discussions in the WTO, the issues raised here remain important, precisely because of bilateral and regional treaty-making.
a The results of this work are contained in various UNCTAD publications listed in the references. For the coverage of technical cooperation, see UNCTAD 2003e.
Chapter III
[PDF, 19pp., 214KB]
Key national FDI policies and international investment agreements
A. Key national FDI policies
B. The growth of IIAs
C. Features of IIAs at different levels
Chapter IV
[PDF, 47pp., 360KB]
Eight key issues: National Experiences and International Approaches
A. Definition of investment
B. National treatment
C. Nationalization and expropriation
D. Dispute settlement
E. Performance requirements
F. Incentives
G. Transfer of technology
H. Competition policy
Chapter V
[PDF, 11pp., 187KB]
The importance of national policy space
The preceding analysis revealed that IIAs need to accommodate different perspectives on the policy priorities in the investment process. The common goal, shared by all parties to IIAs, is to increase the flows of FDI. In addition, home countries (and their investors) seek transparency, stability, predictability and security—and greater market access. And host developing countries, for their part, want to advance their development by increasing the benefits from FDI. To do so, they need to have enough flexibility to use a range of development-oriented policies. In the final analysis, IIAs have to be acceptable to all parties, many in different development situations with widely differing endowments. IIAs therefore need to strike a mutually advantageous balance of rights and obligations between the diverging interests and priorities of various groups of countries.
A. Objectives of IIAs
B. Structure
C. Content
D. Implementation of IIAs
Chapter VI
[PDF, 19pp., 219KB]
Home countries and investors
A. Home country measures
B. Good corporate citizenship
[PDF, 123pp., 657KB]
Selected UNCTAD publications on Transnational Corporations and Foreign Direct Investment

Book information:
UN Symbol: UNCTAD/WIR/2003
Sales no.: E.03.II.D.8
Date of publication: 04/09/03
ISBN: 92-1-112580-4
No. of pages: 322 pages
US$ 49 (Developed countries)
US$ 19 (Developing countries)
To order: Order form

--World Investment Reports (the complete series)
--World Investment Reports (selected statistics)
-- Planning for Development
UNCTAD areas of work:
----- Globalization and Development
----- Development of Africa
----- Least Developed Countries
----- Landlocked Developing Countries
----- Small Island Developing States
----- International Trade and
----- Commodities

-----Services Infrastructure
----- Investment, Technology and
----- Enterprise Development

The following databases on-line are available:
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Foreign Direct Investment
Handbook of Statistics
ICT Statistics
Millennium Indicators

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-- Economic Development in Africa
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World indicators on the environment
World Energy Statistics - Time Series
Economic inequality