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From the World Bank Archives: File Copy 13382
A. Waterson, "Development Planning. Lessons of Experience", 1969, World Bank, 770 pages
Foreword - Preface - Contents - Important abbreviations used
Part One: The Development Planning Process
I. Introduction

II. The many meanings of planning [pp.8-27]
Wartime planning
Town and country planning
Anticyclical planning
----National planning
----Regional planning
Summary and conclusions

III. The spread of development planning [pp. 28-44]
Early planning
Postwar planning
Summary and conclusions

IV. Stages of development planning [pp. 45-102]
The socialized countries
----Evolution of central planning
----The pattern of decentralization
The mixed economies
----Three stages of planning
----Premature comprehensive planning
----Experience favors staged approach
Difficulties of comprehensive planning
----The problem of projects
----Rationalising current public investment
Summary and conclusions

V. Development plans [pp. 103-169]
Planning without plans
The variety of plans
The formal status of plans
The duration of plans
----Short-term plans
----Medium-term plans
----Long-term plans
----Plan continuity and flexibility
----Rolling plans
----Annual plans
Plan objectives
Plan targets
Summary and conclusions

VI. Basic data for planning [pp. 170-200]
Relationship between data and planning
----Data needed for planning
The question of priorities
----Planning with inadequate data
Improving planning data
----Blueprints for statistical betterment
Summary and conclusions

VII. The budget's role in planning [pp. 201-248]
The relationship between plan and budget
Inadequacies of conventional budgets
----Budgetary fragmentation
----Consequences of staff inadequacies
----Deficiencies in budget procedures
----Poor accounting
----Classification systems
Budgetary reform
----Budgetary comprehensiveness
----Complementarity of capital and current expenditures
----Is a divided budget desirable for planning?
----Program on performance budgeting
----Order of priority
Summary and conclusions

VIII. Administrative obstacles to planning [pp. 249-292]
The administrative problem
Backward personnel practices
Dilatory procedures
Archaic accounting and financial controls
Lack of co-ordination
Inadequate organization
Maladministration and the private sector
Dealing with administrative obstacles
----The difficulties of reforms
----The nuclei approach
----Measuring administrative capacity
Summary and conclusions

IX. The implementation of plans [pp. 293-370]
Promise and performance
----Sectoral shortfalls
Manifestations of failure
----Overemphasis on financial targets
----Delays in execution
----High costs
----Inferior construction
----Low yields
----Unused capacity
Why implementation lags
----Dispersal of resources
----Lack of discipline
----Inadequate preparatory work on projects
----Lack of engineering supervision
----Administrative and procedural delays
Relating plan formulation to implementation
----The problem posed
----Formulation vs. implementation
----Importance of administration and politics
----Measuring inept administration and political commitment
Improving implementation
----Improving the conditions of implementation
----Evaluating plan progress
Summary and conclusions

Part two: the organization of planning
X. Planning machinery priorities [pp. 371-384]
When a central planning agency works badly
Priority for programming units
Priority for improving budgetary procedures
A planned approach to planning organization
Summary and conclusions

XI. The distribution of planning functions [pp. 385-434]
The need for definition
Responsibility for annual operational plan
The planning agency and the budget office
Relation between planning and statistical agencies
Co-ordinating technical skills
Negotiating financing
Responsibility for regional plans
Responsibility for projects and programs
----Training institutes
----Interministry project review committees
Co-ordination plan implementation
----As an advisory function
----As an executive function
Separate implementing agencies
Summary and conclusions

XII. The funtion and role of a central planning agency [pp. 435-466]
Functions of a central planning agency
Role of a central planning agency
----Eliciting public participation
Summary and conclusions

XIII. Locating a central planning agency [pp.467-490]
The planning agency and the chief executive
Autonomous planning agencies
Planning agencies in ministries
Summary and conclusions

XIV. Types of central planning agencies [pp. 491-515]
Cabinet committees
Mixed committees
Number of planning tiers
The technical planning agency
Summary and conclusions

XV. Organization of a central planning agency [pp. 516-538]
Staffing difficulties
Legal authority
The organization chart
The task force approach
Summary and conclusions

XVI. Subnational regional and local planning bodies [pp. 539-576]
Planning bodies in political regions and localities
----In socialized countries
----In mixed economies with federal governments
----In mixed economies with unitary governments
----In individual political subdivisions
Planning bodies in economic regions
Summary and conclusions

XVII. Programing units in operating organizations [pp. 565-576]
The function and role of programing units
The establishment of programming units
Summary and conclusions

Appendix I. Colombia: questionnaire on investment programs of public entities [pp. 577-578]

Appendix II. Argentina: questionnaire on public investment programs [pp. 579-586]

Appendix III. National plans [pp. 587-686]

Appendix IV. Central planning agencies [pp. 687-695]

Appendix V. Organization chart of Iran's plan organization [p. 696]

Appendix VI. The Philippines National Economic Council [p. 697]

Appendix VII. Morroco (1960) Division of Economic Coordination and Planning [p. 698]

Appendix VIII. India's Planning Commission [pp. 699-700]

Appendix IX. Pakistan, organization chart, planning commission, President's secretariat [p. 701]

Appendix X. Turkey's State Planning Organization [p. 702]

Works cited [pp. 703-724]

Name index [pp. 725-728]

Subject index [pp. 729-748]

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