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From the World Bank database
World Bank Discussion Paper No. 415
Facets of Globalization. International and local dimensions of development
S. Yusuf, S. Evenett and J. Wei, editors
October 2001

Contents - Preface
Global Integration, Regional Development, and the Dynamics of Urbanization: An Introduction
Simon J. Evenett and Shahid Yusuf, the World Bank
Globalization and Growing Regional Inequalities
Supranational Ramifications of Globalization: Regional Integration and International Environmental Concerns
The Rise of Local Politics and the Implications for National Governance Structures
Poverty Alleviation in an Era of Urbanization
Concluding Remarks

Part I. Global Systems and the New Dynamics

1. Finance, Financial Regulation, and Economic Development: An International Perspective
Lawrence J. White, Stern School of Business, New York University
Finance Is Special
The Opaqueness-Transparency Paradigm
Implications of the Opaqueness-Transparency Paradigm

2. Globalization, Foreign Direct Investment, and Urbanization in Developing Countries
Victor F. S. Sit, University of Hong Kong, China
Testing the Relationship between Urbanization and Foreign Direct Investment
The Case of Exo-Urbanization
Mega-Urban and Extended Metropolitan Regions
Cities as Centers for New Opportunities and Competitiveness
Conclusion: Response to the Asian Financial Crisis and Policy Suggestions

3. Global Environmental Imperatives and Institutions to Ensure Sustainability
Gernot Klepper, Kiel Institute of World Economics and Centerfor Economic Policy Research
Growth, the Environment, and Sustainability
The Issues Ahead
Global Environmental Imperatives

Part II. East Asia and Globalization

4. The Greater China Growth Triangle in the Asian Financial Crisis
Yak-yeow Kueh, Lingnan College, Hong Kong
Greater China as a Process of Economic Integration
Capital Flows within Greater China during the Asian Financial Crisis
Impact on Trade Flows within Greater China
Government Policies, Economic Consequences, and Longer-Term Implications
Prospects for Further Economic Cooperation within Greater China

5. Regional Development Policies in Brazil, China, and Indonesia
Junichi Yamada, Japan Ban kfor International Cooperation
Regional Disparities
Reasons behind Regional Disparities
Current Regional Development Strategies

6. The Impact of Globalization on China's Economy
Shuqing Guo, People's Bank of China
The Effects of Openness
Meeting the Challenges of Economic Globalization
Policy Responses to the Asian Financial Crisis
Perspectives on the Process of Globalization

7. Globalization and Urbanization in the Republic of Korea
Sang-Chuel Choe, Seoul National University, and Won Bae Kim, Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements
Korea's Urbanization Path
Policy Responses
Current Issues and Prospects

8. Cities and Governments
Edward L. Glaeser and Jordan Rappaport, Harvard University
What Does Sound Urban Policy Entail?
Nine Empirical Issues
Lessons for Central Government
Lessons for Local Government Behavior from Economic Theory

9. Urban Governance and Politics in a Global Context: The Growing Importance of Localities
Richard Stren, Centrefor Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto
Components of the Local: Urban Civil Society
Components of the Local: Democratization
Components of the Local: The New Localism

10. Crime As a Social Cost of Poverty and Inequality: A Review Focusing on Developing Countries
F. Bourguignon, The World Bank and tcole des Hautes Ptudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris
Crime and Crime Trends: International Comparisons of Orders of Magnitude
Crime, Poverty, and Inequality: What Economic Theory Has to Say
The Limited Available Evidence on the Relationships among Inequality, Poverty, and Crime

11. Urban Poverty: Some Thoughts About its Scale and Nature and About Responses to It
Diana Mitlin and David Satterthwaite, International Institute for Environment and Development
Defining Urban Poverty
Seeking to Explain the Influence of Key Economic and Spatial Trends on Urban Poverty
Community Initiatives and Poverty Reduction
Measures that Increase Access to Jobs
Central Government's Future Role in Alleviating Urban Poverty

12. Urban Poverty Alleviation in the Age of Globalization in Pacific Asia
Yue-man Yeung, Chinese University of Hong Kong
Urban Poverty Status
Poverty Alleviation Initiatives
Factors Affecting Urban Poverty
Social Polarization in Hong Kong
A Policy Framework

13. Financing of Subnational Public Investment in India
Rakesh Mohan, National Council of Applied Economic Research, India State Government Financing of Investment
Financing of Investment by Local Governments
A New Approach to Financing Public Investment
Annex A.13.1.Extracts from the 74th Constitutional Amendment, 1992

14. Analysis of Spatial Organization and Transportation Demand in an Expanding Urban Area: Sendai, Japan, 1972-92
Naohiro Kitano, Japan Bankfor International Cooperation
Analysis of Spatial Organization and Transportation Demand in the City of Sendai
Policy Issues in City Planning and Urban Transportation Infrastructure Provision
Conclusion and Policy Implications
Appendix 14.1. Spatial Statistical Methods
Papers published ( 2nd part )
Abstract: The chapters in this volume underscore the transformative role of globalization and urbanization, and show the interplay between these forces. 

Trade reform and liberalized foreign investment regimes have contributed to the spatial reallocation of economic activity toward cities, especially those cities that can attract and nurture human capital and strong connections to other markets. 

Global factors have, therefore, reinforced agglomeration economies in shifting economic clout toward cities, and in so doing they may be exacerbating regional disparities in incomes. 

The rise of cities is changing political dynamics in developing nations. It is forcing a reappraisal of existing constitutional structures and center-local relations, as well as the important--and perhaps more mundane-- arrangements for funding and organizing investment by subnational entities.

 At the same time, democratization is reinforcing the pressures for local autonomy. This perspective shifts the debate away from whether or not globalization is undermining the role of the central state and toward one about the appropriate allocation of responsibilities and resources to different layers of government. 

Strong arguments support the position that municipalities can, with the appropriate resources and political structures to ensure their responsiveness to local needs, make substantial improvements in the well-being of urban residents. Experience suggests that some state functions ought to remain with government..

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