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From UN-Habitat
UN-Habitat and the Kenya Slum Upgrading Programme
Strategic Document 2008

Kenya’s slums are growing at an unprecedented rate as more and more people move to Kenya’s cities and towns in search of employment and other opportunities urban areas offer. The government and local authorities are faced with the serious challenge of guiding the physical growth of urban areas and providing adequate services for the growing urban population. Kenya’s urban population is at present 40 percent of the total population. More than 70 percent of these urbanites live in slums, with limited access to water and sanitation, housing, and secure tenure. They have poor environmental conditions and experience high crime rates. If the gap continues to grow between the supply and demand of urban services such as housing, the negative consequences of urbanisation can become irreversible.



Read also Ghana: Accra Urban Profile - 2009

Foreword - Contents - Introduction

The task of making slums better living and working environments for the urban poor, along with the inseparable task of reducing poverty, can only be achieved through a common vision. And a common vision for sustainable slum upgrading can only be realised through genuine partnerships. We extend our sincerest gratitude to the Government of Kenya and our development partners, who have taken this task to heart. We also invite you to be part of this coalition, a coalition that can help strengthen the capacity of the Government of Kenya, local authorities, local communities, UN-HABITAT, and other partners in addressing the pressing issue of slum upgrading.


1 Context
1.1 Justification for the Strategy Document
1.2 Aims of the Strategy Document
1.3 Rationale for KENSUP

2 What is KENSUP
2.1 Government of Kenya’s KENSUP Strategy
2.2 Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Kenya and UN-HABITAT
2.3 KENSUP Update from the KENSUP Secretariat

3 KENSUP Projects Within UN-HABITAT
3.1 Main Areas of Focus
3.2 New Areas of Focus
3.3 Impact of UN-HABITAT’s Activities

4 UN-HABITAT’s New KENSUP Strategy
4.1 UN-HABITAT’s Mandate
4.2 Objectives
4.3 Guiding Principles
4.4 UN-HABITAT, Partners and their Roles
4.5 Necessary Pre-Conditions for Success
4.5 Development Approach
4.6 Implementation Strategy & Methodology
4.7 Expected Results
4.8 Financing Strategy

5 Way Forward
5.1 Strategy Document, Project Document and Activities
5.2 Funding
5.3 Relations with the Ministry of Housing
5.4 KENSUP Team
5.5 Other Partners

UN-HABITAT KENSUP Projects
Cities without Slums (CWS), Kisumu
Sustainable Neighbourhood Programme (SNP), Mavoko
Kibera Slum Upgrading Initiative, Nairobi
Mombasa Slum Upgrading Programme
Kibera Integrated Water, Sanitation and Waste Management Project, Nairobi
Youth Empowerment Programme, Kibera and Mavoko
Kiandutu Slum Youth Project, Thika
Kahawa Soweto, Nairobi
Korogocho Slum Upgrading Programme, Nairobi

List of Abbreviations - Bibliography

 



 

Background Papers

World Development Report 2009 "Reshaping Economic Geography"
Alva, M., and A. Behar. " Factors that contribute to (or detract from) successful outcomes in African Regional Agreements."

Behar, Alberto. " Neighbourhood growth effects: an annual panel data approach."

Brülhart, Marius. " An Account of Global Intra-Industry Trade, 1962-2006." - 2008
This paper provides a comprehensive description of intra-industry trade patterns and trends, using data on more than 39 million bilateral trade flows. In 2006, 27 percent of global trade was intraindustry if measured at the finest (5-digit) level of statistical aggregation, and 44 percent if measured at a coarser (3-digit) level of statistical aggregation. The observed steady growth in global intra-industry trade since the early 1960s suggests a process of world-wide structural convergence: economies are becoming more similar over time in terms of their sectoral compositions. In particular since the 1990s, this trend appears to be driven to a significant extent by the international fragmentation of vertical production chains. Intra-industry trade is a highincome and middle-income country phenomenon: African trade remains overwhelmingly of the inter-industry type. Moreover, the observed increase in intra-industry trade was not accompanied by a comparable increase in marginal intra-industry trade, suggesting that trade-induced adjustment pressures remain potentially important.


Calě, Massimiliano. " Urbanisation, inequality and economic growth: Evidence from Indian states."- 2007
The aim of this empirical work is to explore various possible implications of the urbanisation process on development outcomes. I investigate these issues in an intra-country rather than in a traditional cross-country setting, using Indian states over the Post-Independence period and Indian towns over the 21st century as the units of analysis. I exploit the richness of contexts within the Indian sub-continent, controlling for many of those countries’ unobservables that undermine the robustness of inferences from cross-countries studies.
India has a number of features that make it particularly amenable to this type of empirical verification. First, it is a federal country composed of several states with a fairly high degree of political autonomy, which allows for some state-wise variability in policy variables.
Second, the size of the major states is similar in terms of both population and geographical extension to that of medium-large countries.


Clemens, Michael, C. Montenegro, and L. Pritchett. " The Place Premium: Wage Differences for Identical Workers accross US Borders."

Coulibaly, Souleymane. " On the Complementarity of Regional and Global Trade."

Crafts, Nicholas. " European Growth in the Age of Regional Economic Integration: Convergence Big Time?"

Hewings, Geoffrey J.D., Edward Feser, and Ken Poole. " Spatial/Territorial Development Policies in the United States."

Hirotsugu, Uchida and Andrew Nelson. " Agglomeration Index: Towards a New Measure of Urban Concentration." - 2008
A common challenge in analyzing urbanization is the data. The United Nations compiles information on urbanization (urban population and its share of total national population) that is reported by various countries but there is no standardized definition of “urban,” resulting in inconsistencies. This situation is particularly troublesome if one wishes to conduct a cross-country analysis or determine the aggregate urbanization status of the regions (such as Asia or Latin America) and the world. This paper proposes an alternative measure of urban concentration that we call an agglomeration index. It is based on three factors: population density, the population of a “large” urban center, and travel time to that large urban center. The main objective in constructing this new measure is to provide a globally consistent definition of settlement concentration to conduct cross-country comparative and aggregated analyses in the same way that the $1 per day poverty line is used in poverty issues-related studies. As an accessible measure of economic density, the agglomeration index lends itself to the study of concepts such as agglomeration rents in urban areas, the “thickness” of a market, and the travel distance to such a market with many workers and consumers. With anticipated advances in remote sensing technology and geo-coded data analysis tools, the agglomeration index can be further refined to address some of the caveats currently associated with it.


Kilroy, Austin. " Intra-urban spatial inequalities: cities as ‘urban regions.’"- 2007
This section gives an overview of the forces and characteristics of intra-urban spatial inequalities, before the subsequent main section examines the mechanisms by which they have significance for economic development.
Spatial inequalities within urban areas are a natural consequence of income inequalities between households. Standard urban economic theory explains the spatial patterning of cities in term of bid-rent curves and other models of location decisions. These mechanisms give rise to the predominant clustering of residences by income, with those locations determined according to the desirability of residence location and households’ abilities to afford land in that location. Until the 20th century—in the era before motorised transport—the costs of intra-urban communication encouraged the concentration of residences, services and even light manufacturing in the centres of cities.


Kilroy Austin. " The role of cities in post-war economic recovery." - 2007
Eighty percent of the world’s twenty poorest countries have experienced a major war in the last fifteen years1, and civil war has reversed development in many other developing countries. On one hand, spatial inequalities—particularly territorial inequalities—have been found to be a significant determinant of the onset of war2; but on the other hand, urban economies appear often to play a key role in recovery after war. This section surveys evidence on the economic role of cities in generating post-conflict recovery.



Kroehnert, S. and S. Vollmer.  " Where Have All The Young Women Gone?: Gender-Specific Migration from East to West Germany."

Lall, Somik, Christopher Timmins, and Shouyue Yu. " Moving to Opportunity: Successful Integration or Bright Lights?" (Presentation)

Manners, P. and A. Behar. " Trade in sub-Saharan Africa and opportunities for Low Income Countries."

Mayer, Thierry. " Market Potential and Development: A background paper for the World Development Report."

Montenegro, Claudio E., and Maximilian L. Hirn. " A New Disaggregated Set of Labor Market Indicators using Standardized Household Surverys from Around the World."

Nelson, B. and A. Behar. " Natural Resources, Growth and Spatially-Based Development: A View of The Literature."

Satterthwhaite, David. " Expanding the supply and reducing the cost of land for housing in urban areas in low- and middle-income nations."

te Velde, Dirk William.  " Regional integration, growth and concentration."

Treyvish, Andrey. " The Downfall of the Soviet Union: A Spatial Explanation."

Vollmer, Sebastian, Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso, Felicitas Nowak-Lehmann D. and Nils-Hendrik Klann.  " EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements – Empirical Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa."

" Intra-Urban Graphs." 


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