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On Planning for Development
Handbook on Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating for Development Results
Copyright © UNDP 2009, all rights reserved.
Manufactured in the United States of America. Printed on recycled paper.
United Nations Development Programme
One United Nations Plaza
New York, NY 10017, USA
HandbookWeb site:
Design: Suazion, Inc. (NY,
Production: A.K.Office Supplies (NY)

Contents - Preface - Acronyms and abbreviations - Introduction

1. Planning,monitoring and evaluation for development results
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Putting planning, monitoring and evaluation together:
Results-based management
1.3 Principles of planning, monitoring and evaluating for development results
1.4 Overview of key roles and responsibilities

2. Planning for results: Practical applications
2.1 Getting started
2.2 Stakeholder engagement
2.3 The planning exercise
2.4 Finalizing the results framework (deliverable eight)
2.5 Preparing to operationalize
2.6 Putting it together: Planning for change
3. Planning for monitoring and evaluation
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Monitoring and evaluation framework
3.3 Resources for monitoring and evaluation
3.4 Engagement of stakeholders in monitoring and evaluation
3.5 Capacity for monitoring and evaluation
4. Monitoring for results
4.1 Monitoring policy of UNDP, its operational context and roles
and responsibilities
4.2 Preparing to monitor by reinforcing the initial M&E plan
4.3 Monitor: Collection of data, analysis and reporting
4.4 Use of monitoring data for management action and decision making
5. Evaluating for results
5.1 Why evaluate? Uses of evaluation
5.2 Evaluation policy: Principles, norms and standards for evaluation
5.3 Types of evaluation in UNDP
5.4 Roles and responsibilities in evaluation
5.5 Mandatory requirements for programme units
6. Initiating and managing an evaluation
6.1 Involvement and roles of stakeholders and partners in managing
an evaluation
6.2 Key steps in decentralized evaluations
6.3 Key elements of the joint evaluation process
7. Assuring the quality of evaluation design and methodology
7.1 Overview
7.2 Defining the context
7.3 The evaluation purpose
7.4 Focusing the evaluation
7.5 Evaluation methodology
8. Enhancing the use of knowledge from monitoring and evaluation
8.1 Why use monitoring and evaluation?
8.2 Learning and generating knowledge from monitoring and evaluation
8.3 Knowledge products and dissemination
Annexes and Index
Annex 1. References
Annex 2. Field visit report format
Annex 3. Evaluation terms of reference template and quality standards
Annex 4. Global, regional and national evaluation networks
Annex 5. Selecting evaluators: Individuals versus firms
Annex 6. Management response template
Annex 7. Evaluation report template and quality standards
Annex 8. Resources for evaluation

Box 1. Understanding inter-linkages and dependencies between planning,
monitoring and evaluation
Box 2. The distinction between monitoring and evaluation and other
oversight activities
Box 3. Planning, monitoring and evaluation in crisis settings
Box 4. Main deliverables to be produced in the planning for results process
Box 5. Preparing a timeline for UN programme documents
Box 6. The Common Country Assessment
Box 7. One difference between a ‘project’ and a ‘results-based’ approach
to development
Box 8. Note on problem trees
Box 9. Guides to use in visioning
Box 10. Results map tips
Box 11. An unintended result: “Our husbands weren’t ready for these changes”
Box 12. Note on results framework
Box 13. Note on performance indicators
Box 14. SMART indicators
Box 15. Using ‘level of progress made’ as an output indicator
Box 16. Suggestions for communications plans
Box 17. Sharing the vision
Box 18. Recap of key considerations in planning for results
Box 19. Key issues to be considered in costing an evaluation
Box 20. Stakeholder involvement in monitoring and evaluation:
Practice of UNDP
Box 21. Examples of alignment with national systems
Box 22. UNDP policy on field visits and good implementation practice
Box 23. Assurance role
Box 24. Good practices of data collection supported by UNDP
Box 25. Typical UNDAF annual review process and lessons learned
Box 26. Assessing the use of an evaluation
Box 27. Norms for evaluation
Box 28. Categorizing evaluation by timing
Box 29. Benefits and challenges of joint evaluations
Box 30. Evaluation Resource Centre (ERC)
Box 31. Mandatory evaluation requirements for UNDP associated funds
and programmes
Box 32. National ownership of evaluation
Box 33. Steps in decentralized evaluations
Box 34. Avoiding and mitigating conflict of interest in evaluation (examples)
Box 35. Criteria for evaluation reports
Box 36. Example of a management arrangement for a joint UNDAF evaluation
Box 37. Negotiating funding modalities for joint evaluations
Box 38. Guiding questions for defining the context
Box 39. Guiding questions for defining evaluation criteria
Box 40. Questions for evaluators
Box 41. Human rights and gender equality perspective in evaluation design
Box 42. Experience from the Nepal country office: Using evaluations in the
CPD and project design
Box 43. Characteristics of a good knowledge product
Box 44. Tools and networks to support evaluation knowledge sharing
Figure 1. The RBM life-cycle approach
Figure 2. RBM helps managers and staff to…
Figure 3. Organization of the chapter
Figure 4. Stakeholder importance and influence matrix
Figure 5. The Value/Support/Capacity analytical model
Figure 6. The problem tree (example)
Figure 7. Basic results map (example)
Figure 8. Assumptions and risks
Figure 9. The RBM results chain
Figure 10. SMART outcomes and impacts
Figure 11. Illustration of where results data should be entered into UNDP systems
Figure 12. Formulating a capacity development response
Figure 13. General steps for implementing monitoring
Figure 14. Outcome-output-project nexus
Figure 15. Prioritizing monitoring
Figure 16. Proposed management structure for an evaluation
Table 1. Key deliverables of programme units in planning,monitoring and evaluation
Table 2. Sample draft work plan for the planning process
(with illustrative examples)
Table 3. Identification of key stakeholders and their interests
Table 4. Importance and influence of stakeholders
Table 5. Rough guide for creating an initial draft of the results framework
Table 6. The results framework
Table 7. The ‘results’ sections of the results framework
Table 8. Impact indicators
Table 9. Outcome indicators
Table 10. Output indicators
Table 11. Indicators, baselines and targets
Table 12. Sample results framework with means of verification
Table 13. Sample results framework
Table 14. Planning matrix for monitoring
Table 15. Illustrative example of planning matrix for monitoring:
Enhanced capacity of electoral management authority
Table 16. Evaluation plan
Table 17. Monitoring and evaluation capacity matrix
Table 18. Roles and responsibilities for monitoring
Table 19. Selecting the right mix of monitoring mechanisms
Table 20. Example of an AnnualWork Plan format with monitoring component
Table 21. Examples of different types of evaluations carried out by the
Evaluation Office and programme units
Table 22. Differences between project and outcome evaluations
Table 23. Roles and responsibilities in decentralized evaluations
Table 24. Mandatory evaluation-related requirements
Table 25. Key roles and responsibilities in the evaluation process
Table 26. Sources of information for an evaluation team
Table 27. Key aspects of the initiative
Table 28. Summary of common data collection methods used in UNDP evaluations


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