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From the World Bank Group (published on 22nd April 2006)        Users Guide  
World Development Indicators 2005

Table of Contents - Foreword - Acknowledgments - Preface - Partners - Users guide
Bibliography and Methodology

Millennium Development Goals, targets, and indicators

1.1 Size of the economy
1.2 Millennium Development Goals: eradicating poverty and improving lives
1.3 Millennium Development Goals: protecting our common environment
1.4 Millennium Development Goals: overcoming obstacles
1.5 Women in development
1.6 Key indicators for other economies

Text figures and boxes
Goal 1 Poverty rates are falling, but progress has been uneven 
China leads the way
Rising poverty in Africa—and between the poverty lines
Fewer people in extreme poverty
Africa’s poor get poorer
Which countries are on track to reach the MDG target?
Starting life at a disadvantage
Hunger rising in Africa
Poor and malnourished
Goal 2 More children everywhere are completing primary school
Education for all means girls and boys
Inefficient schools slow progress
Rich and poor: an attendance gap
Goal 3 More girls in school, but the 2005 target will be missed
More women working for wages
Few women in decision making positions
Income and tradition determine girls’ opportunities for schooling
Goal 4 Improving the odds for children
To reduce child deaths, infants must survive
Many children’s deaths are preventable
Unequal risks
Goal 5 Mothers at risk in Africa and South Asia
Mothers die because of inadequate health care
Needed: well trained health workers
Poor and rural women are least well served
Goal 6 While Sub-Saharan Africa struggles, HIV/AIDS spreads in other regions
The risk to women is growing
The risk of tuberculosis grows for the most vulnerable
In Africa AIDS is leaving millions of children orphaned
Young children bear the burden of malaria
Goal 7 People need safe, reliable supplies of water
Many still lack adequate sanitation
Urban areas are expanding
More environmental challenges ahead
Goal 8 Many sources and many patterns of fi nancing 
Official development assistance is rising, but still too little
Tariffs remain high on poor countries’ exports
Debt service is falling, but more relief is needed
New technologies are spreading quickly

1.1a Developing countries produce slightly less than half the world’s output
1.2a Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goals 1–5 
1.3a Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goals 6–7 
1.4a Location of indicators for Millennium Development Goal 8

Introduction 43
2.1 Population dynamics 48
2.2 Labor force structure 52
2.3 Employment by economic activity 56
2.4 Unemployment 60
2.5 Poverty 64
2.6 Social indicators of poverty 70
2.7 Distribution of income or consumption 72
2.8 Assessing vulnerability 76
2.9 Enhancing security 80
2.10 Education inputs 84
2.11 Participation in education 88
2.12 Education effi ciency and completion 92
2.13 Education outcomes 96
2.14 Health: expenditure, services, and use 100
2.15 Disease prevention: coverage and quality 104
2.16 Reproductive health 108
2.17 Nutrition 112
2.18 Health: risk factors and future challenges 116
2.19 Mortality 120
Text figures and boxes
2a Progress toward gender parity in primary, secondary, and tertiary education is uneven across regions 44
2b Achieving equal access to education for boys and girls leads to progress toward the goal 44
2c Population estimates and enrollment rates 45
2d Sustainable statistical capacity is possible in low-income countries 45
2e Key gender performance indicators 47
2.5a Regional poverty estimates 67
2.5b Coverage of survey data by developing country region, 1978–81 to 2000–01 68
2.9a Poor people often benefi t less than wealthy people from public health spending 83
2.11a Access to education remains elusive, especially for poor children 91
2.13a In rural areas more children drop out of primary school, and girls are more vulnerable 99
2.14a A severe maldistribution of health workers 103
2.15a Children with acute respiratory infection have bettter access to health care in urban areas 107
2.19a Inequalities in health and use of health services in Burkina Faso, 1998 123

3. ENVIRONMENT 2005- full chapter
Environment 1997, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006

Introduction 125
3.a   Urban housing conditions 129
3.1   Rural environment and land use 130
3.2   Agricultural inputs 134
3.3   Agricultural output and productivity 138
3.4   Deforestation and biodiversity 142
3.5   Freshwater 146
3.6   Water pollution 150
3.7   Energy production and use 154
3.8   Energy efficiency, dependency, and emissions 158
3.9   Sources of electricity 162
3.10 Urbanization 166
3.11 Urban environment 170
3.12 Traffic and congestion 174
3.13 Air pollution 178
3.14 Government commitment 180
3.15 Toward a broader measure of savings 184
Text figures and boxes
3a    High-income countries account for half the world’s carbon dioxide emissions 126
3b    Most future urban growth will be absorbed by developing economies 127
3c    Global monitoring of housing conditions and data requirements 128
3.1a All income groups and all regions are becoming less rural 133
3.2a Arable land per person is shrinking in all regions and in all income groups 137
3.3a The 10 countries with the highest cereal yield in 2002–04— and the 10 with the lowest 141
3.5a Agriculture uses more than 71 percent of freshwater globally 149
3.6a High- and middle-income countries account for most water pollution from organic waste 153
3.7a Ten of the top 15 energy producers are low-income countries . . . 157
3.7b . . . but only 7 of the top 15 energy users are 157
3.7c High-income countries have the highest energy use per capita 157
3.8a All income groups are using energy more efficiently now 161
3.9a Sources of electricity generation have shifted differently in different income groups 165
3.10a Developing economies are becoming more urban 169
3.10b . . . and urbanization is growing fastest in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia 169
3.11a The use of public transportation for work trips varied widely across cities in 1998 173
3.12a High-income countries have many more passenger cars per 1,000 people than developing countries do 177
3.14a The Kyoto Protocol on climate change 180
3.14b Global atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons have leveled off 181
3.14c Global focus on biodiversity and climate change 182

Introduction 189
4.a Recent economic performance 194
4.b Key macroeconomic indicators 195
4.1 Growth of output 198
4.2 Structure of output 202
4.3 Structure of manufacturing 206
4.4 Growth of merchandise trade 210
4.5 Structure of merchandise exports 214
4.6 Structure of merchandise imports 218
4.7 Structure of service exports 222
4.8 Structure of service imports 226
4.9 Structure of demand 230
4.10 Growth of consumption and investment 234
4.11 Central government fi nances 238
4.12 Central government expenses 242
4.13 Central government revenues 246
4.14 Monetary indicators and prices 250
4.15 Balance of payments current account 254
4.16 External debt 258
4.17 External debt management 262
Text figures and boxes
4a Economic growth varies greatly across regions 190
4b With more than two decades of rapid growth East Asia and Pacifi c has caught up with Latin America and the Caribbean 190
4c The 10 largest holders of foreign exchange reserves in 2003 191
4d Fewer countries had double digit infl ation rates in 2003 192
4e The System of National Accounts—keeping up with the 21st century 193
4.3a Manufacturing continues to show strong growth in East Asia 209
4.5a Some developing country regions are increasing their share of merchandise exports 217
4.6a Top 10 exporters in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2003 221
4.7a Top 10 developing country exporters of commercial services in 2003 225
4.8a The mix of commercial service imports is changing 229
4.10a Investment has risen in Asia, but remains stagnant in Latin America and Africa 237
4.11a Selected developing countries with large cash deficits 241
4.12a Interest payments are a large part of government expenditure for some developing economies 245
4.13a Rich countries rely more on direct taxes 249
4.15a The 15 economies with the largest current account surplus and the 15 with the largest deficit—in 2002 257
4.16a The debt burden of Sub-Saharan African countries has been falling since 1995 261
4.17a When the present value of a country’s external debt exceeds 220 percent of exports or 80 percent of GNI, the World Bank classifies it as severely indebted 265

Introduction 267
5.1 Private sector development 270
5.2 Investment climate 274
5.3 Business environment 278
5.4 Stock markets 282
5.5 Financial depth and efficiency 286
5.6 Tax policies 290
5.7 Relative prices and exchange rates 294
5.8 Defense expenditures and arms transfers 298
5.9 Transport services 302
5.10 Power and communications 306
5.11 The information age 310
5.12 Science and technology 314
Text figures and boxes
5a Policy uncertainty dominates the investment climate concerns of firms 268
5b Challenges in measuring the investment climate 269
5.1a Latin America and the Caribbean still has the highest investment levels, but activity has declined for the fifth consecutive year 273
5.9a World airline passenger traffic is expected to rebound in 2004 after two years of stagnation 305
5.10a Mobile phone access outpaced fixed-line access in some developing country regions in 2003 309
5.11a Six of the top ten world spenders on information and communications technology are developing economies 313

Introduction 319
6.1 Integration with the global economy 322
6.2 Direction and growth of merchandise trade 326
6.3 OECD trade with low- and middle-income economies 329
6.4 Primary commodity prices 332
6.5 Regional trade blocs 334
6.6 Tariff barriers 338
6.7 Global private financial flows 342
6.8 Net financial flows from Development Assistance Committee members 346
6.9 Aid fl ows from Development Assistance Committee members 348
6.10 Aid dependency 350
6.11 Distribution of net aid by Development Assistance Committee members 354
6.12 Net financial flows from multilateral institutions 358
6.13 Movement of people 362
6.14 Travel and tourism 366
Text figures and boxes
6a Average gross capital flows to developing countries are half those to high-income countries 320
6b Remittances are growing in importance 321
6c Improving data on remittance flows 321
6.1a Commercial service exports are becoming increasingly important in South Asia 325
6.2a Growing trade in developing countries 328
6.3a Surging trade 331
6.7a More foreign direct investment for developing countries 345
6.8a Who were the largest donors in 2003? 347
6.9a Offi cial development assistance from non-DAC donors 349
6.10a New directions for aid 353
6.11a The fl ow of aid from DAC members refl ects global events and priorities 357
6.12a World Bank net lending and grants in 2003 361
6.14a Tourism from developing countries is on the rise 369

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