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World Development Report 2013: Jobs

Moving Jobs to the Center Stage
Recent world developments have put jobs at the center of the policy debate. The global financial crisis has resulted in massive job losses in both emerging and industrial countries. In the latter, there is concern about a jobless recovery; in the former, a comeback cannot hide workers’ vulnerability to shocks. Political upheavals in the Arab world highlight the discontent of educated youth whose employment opportunities fall far short of expectations. The political upheavals could boost transparency and accountability in the region, but if jobs do not follow they could lead to greater instability.
These developments create a sense of urgency, but they remind us that jobs are the cornerstone of economic and social development. Most development work is related to jobs, even if we, as development practitioners, do not always articulate it in that way. We approach jobs from different angles: infrastructure development, competition, innovation policies, or skills upgrading. But we tend to do so in silos.

World Development Report 2013 by chapters

Foreword, Acknowledgments, Abbreviations and data notes, Contents

Overview. Moving jobs center stage

Jobs wanted
Development happens through jobs
Valuing jobs
Jobs agendas are diverse...but connected
Policies through the jobs lens
Jobs are center stage, but where are the numbers?
Question: When is the conventional wisdom right?
1.- The jobs challenge

A job, but not always a salary
Youth bulges, aging societies, and migrant nations
Cities, wages, and women
Jobs are changing in surprising ways
Prosperity, but a changing distribution of earnings
The role of the private sector
Vulnerability on a global scale
Question 1: What is a job?

Part 1.- Jobs are transformational
2.- Jobs and living standards

Jobs improve material well-being
Jobs are more than just earnings
Jobs and life satisfaction
Question 2:Growth strategies or jobs strategies?

3.- Jobs and productivity

Employment turbulence, not jobless growth
Most jobs are in a very small farms and firms
In farms, uneven technological progress
Among firms, much churning and few gazelles
Question 3: Can entrepreneurship be fostered?

4.- Jobs and social cohesion

Jobs can help manage social tensions
Jobs (or the lack of jobs) can shape social interactions
Question 4: Can policies contribute to social cohesion?

Part 2.- What are good jobs for development?
5.- Valuing jobs

Rights as the foundation
The value of jobs to individual and society
Spillovers from jobs
Can the development payoffs from jobs be quantified
Question 5: Skills or Jobs- which come first?

6.- Diverse jobs agendas

Agrarian economies
Conflict-affected countries
Urbanizing countries
Resource-rich countries
Small island nations
Countries with high youth unemployment
Formalizing economies
Aging societies
Question 6: A targeted investment climate?

7.- Connected jobs agendas

Migration of workers
Migration of jobs
Question 7: Competing for jobs?

Part 3.- Policies through the jobs lens
8.- Labor policies revisited

Question 8: Protecting workers or protecting jobs?

9.- Beyond labor policies

Question 9: How to accelerate labor reallocation?

Appendixes, Glossary, Bibliographical notes, Background papers and notes

Selected Indicators


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