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From The World Bank Group
World Trade Indicators 2008
Benchmarking Policy and Performance
By R. Islam and G. Zanini
Countries and Customs Territories in the WTI Database

Executive Summary

Tariff protection, both with and without the inclusion of preferences, has fallen consistently in all regions and income groups from the mid-1990s to 2007, and especially in low-income countries, where average MFN applied tariffs fell 46 percent (10 percentage points). High-income countries, which were earlier reformers, still have the lowest average tariffs at 6 percent compared to a developing country average of 11 percent. Other measures, such as the World Bank’s Trade (MFN) Tariff Restrictiveness Index (MFN TTRI), confi rm this pattern.
...But average tariffs do not reveal the whole pattern of protection. High-income countries have higher nontariff barriers, greater tariff escalation and dispersion, and much higher maximum tariffs than low-income countries; that is, they protect certain sectors much more than others. Many of these protected sectors and goods are of special interest to developing-country exporters.
...Developing country exporters face higher export hurdles at the upper end of production than at the lower end. Most countries protect finished goods more than unfinished goods, but tariff escalation is higher in the high-income OECD countries than in developing countries. This pattern is amplified in the agriculture sector...

Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Policy-Related Trade Indicators
Trade Policy
External Environment
Overall Business and Institutional Environment
Trade Facilitation

2.1. Garment and Textiles Exporters Also Face Higher Tariffs Than the Rest of the World Tables
2.1. High- and Middle-Income Countries Have the Lowest Import Protection
2.2. Some Countries Have Increased Their MFN Tariffs (Simple Averages)
2.3. Most Developing Countries, Save WTO Accession Countries, Have Committed Little in the GATS
2.4. Oil and Commodity Exporters and Rich Countries Enjoy the Best Market Access
2.5. Small Islands Enjoy Lowest Tariff Barriers, While Cotton Exporters the Highest, 2006
2.6. Some Countries Draw High Benefi ts from Preferences, Others None
2.1. Tariff Protection Is Highest among Low-Income Countries and the SAS, MNA, and SSA Regions
2.2. Tariffs Have Been Falling in All Regions, but Remain High in MNA, SAS, and SSA
2.3. Import Duties Collected Are Much Lower Than Statutory Tariffs
2.4. Countries with Lower Tariffs Tend to Be More Integrated 10
2.5. The SAS Region and Other Low-Income Countries Had the Largest Decreases
in Tariffs
2.6. Countries Have Liberalized Agriculture Less Than Other Merchandise Sectors
2.7. High- and Middle-Income Countries Have Less Transparent Protection
2.8. MNA and HI-OECD Countries Protect Agriculture the Most and SSA the Least
2.9. Maximum Tariffs and Dispersion Are Still High in Many Regions
2.10. Tariff Escalation Is Highest in MNA and High-Income OECD Countries, Especially in Agriculture
2.11. Fiscal Revenues Are Most Dependent on Import Duties in SSA and SAS Countries
2.12. ECA and High-Income OECD Countries Have Committed the Most to Open Their Services Sectors and Low-Income Countries the Least
2.13. High-Income Countries Are More Committed Than Other Groups to Services Trade Liberalization in Most Sectors
2.14. Market Access Is More Restricted in Agriculture
2.15. SAS Exporters Face the Highest Tariff Barriers and MNA’s the Lowest
2.16. Better Market Access Helps Trade and Export Performance
2.17. Agricultural Exporters Face Higher Market Access Barriers
2.18. Duty-Free Trade Has Increased Signifi cantly
2.19. Benefits from Preferences Vary across Regions from Low to Modest
2.20. Countries with Better Institutional Environments Tend to Have Lower Export Concentrations and Higher Shares of Manufacturing Exports
2.21. Countries with Best Logistics Performance Are All Developed Economies That Are Major Global Transport and Logistics Hubs
2.22. Countries with Better Trade Logistics Integrate Faster
2.1. High- and Middle-Income Countries Have the Lowest Import Protection
2.2. Some Countries Have Increased Their MFN Tariffs (Simple Averages)
2.3. Most Developing Countries, Save WTO Accession Countries, Have Committed Little in the GATS
2.4. Oil and Commodity Exporters and Rich Countries Enjoy the Best Market Access
2.5. Small Islands Enjoy Lowest Tariff Barriers, While Cotton Exporters the Highest, 2006
2.6. Some Countries Draw High Benefits from Preferences, Others None

Chapter 3. Trade Outcomes

3.1. Low-Income Countries Experienced Largest Trade Growth Slowdown in 2007
3.2. Services Trade Grew the Fastest in Mostly High-Income and Upper-Middle-Income Countries
3.3. Trade Integration Has Been Rising across All Income Groups and Most Regions
3.4. Among Developing Regions, MNA and SSA Are the Least Diversified, and ECA and SAS the Most
3.5. Countries with Lower Export Product Concentration Exhibit Less Volatility of Real Export Growth
3.1. Developing Countries’ Export Growth Decelerated in 2007
3.2. Many MNA and SSA Countries Are among Those with the Lowest Trade Growth
3.3. Energy and Commodity Producers in SSA and a Number of Central Asian Countries Expanded Their World Export Market Shares the Most
3.4. Southeast Asian and Small Countries Are More Integrated Than Larger Developing Countries
3.5. OECD and Large Developing Countries Are Most Diversified, While Oil Exporters, Small, Poor, Landlocked Countries the Least
3.6. Top 5 Export Products for 10 Most and 10 Least Diversified Countries, 2005

Chapter 4. Regional Analyses
East Asia and the Pacific
Europe and Central Asia
Latin America and the Caribbean
Middle East and North Africa
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa

4.1. EAP Key Trade-Related Indicators
4.2. ECA Key Trade-Related Indicators
4.3. LAC Key Trade-Related Indicators
4.4. MNA Key Trade-Related Indicators
4.5. SAS Key Trade-Related Indicators
4.6. SSA Key Trade-Related Indicators

Appendix A. Definitions of Selected Indicators
Appendix B. Background to the Selection of Trade-Related Indicators
Appendix C. Trade Indicators by Other Institutions
Appendix D. Trade-At-A-Glance Tables, by Income Group
Appendix E. Full List of Indicators

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