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From The World Bank Group Documents and Reports Archive
World Development Reports
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World Development Report 2011
Conflict, Security, and Development

With more than 1.5 billion people living in countries affected by confl ict, the World Development Report 2011 (WDR) looks into the changing nature of violence in the 21st century. Interstate and civil wars characterized violent confl ict in the last century; more pronounced today is violence linked to local disputes, political repression, and organized crime. The Report underlines the negative impact of persistent confl ict on a country’s or a region’s development prospects, and notes that no low-income, confl ict-affected state has yet achieved a single Millennium Development Goal.
The risk of major violence is greatest when high levels of stress combine with weak and illegitimate national institutions. Societies are vulnerable when their institutions are unable to protect citizens from abuse, or to provide equitable access to justice and to economic opportunity. These vulnerabilities are exacerbated in countries with high youth unemployment, growing income inequality, and perceptible injustice. Externally driven events such as infi ltration by foreign combatants, the presence of traffi cking networks, or economic shocks add to the stresses that can provoke violence.
The WDR 2011 draws on the experiences of countries that have successfully managed to transition away from repetitive violence, pointing to a specific need to prioritize actions that build confi dence between states and citizens, and develop institutions that can provide security, justice, and jobs. Government capacity is central, but technical competence alone is insufficient: institutions and programs must be accountable to their citizens if they are to acquire legitimacy. Impunity, corruption, and human rights abuses undermine confi dence between states and citizens and increase the risks of violence. Building resilient institutions occurs in multiple transitions over a generation, and does not mean converging on Western institutional models.
The WDR 2011 draws together lessons from national reformers escaping from repetitive cycles of violence. It advocates a greater focus on continuous preventive action, balancing a sometimes excessive concentration on postconfl ict reconstruction. The Report is based on new research, case studies, and extensive consultations with leaders and other actors throughout the world. It proposes a toolkit of options for addressing violence that can be adapted to local contexts, as well as new directions for international policy intended to improve support for national reformers and to tackle stresses that emanate from global or regional trends beyond any one country’s control.

World Development Report 2011 - Final files, April , 2011

Foreword ,  Acknowledgments, Glossary, Methodological Note, Abbreviations and Data Notes
Preamble 1
Part 1: The Challenge of Repeated Cycles of Violence
21st-century conflict and violence are a development problem that does not fit the 20th-century mold
Vicious cycles of conflict: When security, justice, and employment stresses meet weak institutions
Part 2: A Roadmap for Breaking Cycles of Violence at the Country Level
Restoring confi dence and transforming the institutions that provide citizen security, justice, and jobs
Practical policy and program tools for country actors 
Part 3: Reducing the Risks of Violence—Directions for International Policy
Track 1: Providing specialized assistance for prevention through citizen security, justice, and jobs 
Track 2: Transforming procedures and risk and results management in international agencies
Track 3: Acting regionally and globally to reduce external stresses on fragile states
Track 4: Marshaling support from lower-, middle-, and higher-income countries and global and regional institutions to reflect the changing landscape of international policy and assistance
Notes WDR Framework and Structure

Part 1: The Challenge
1 Repeated Violence Threatens Development
Interstate and civil wars have declined since peaking in the early 1990s

Modern violence comes in various forms and repeated cycles
The developmental consequences of violence are severe
Repeated violence is a shared challenge
2 Vulnerability to Violence
Multiple stresses raise the risks of violence
The vicious cycle of weak institutional legitimacy and violence
Part 2: Lessons from National and International

3 From violence to resilience: Restoring confidence and transforming institutions
Why transforming institutions is so difficult
Escaping violence, developing resilience
Do not expect too much, too soon
Adapt to different contexts

4 Restoring confi dence: Moving away from the brink
Drawing on lessons from national reformers
Inclusive-enough coalitions
Delivering early results
5 Transforming institutions to deliver citizen security, justice, and jobs
Pacing and sequencing institutional transformation
Citizen security
What to do systematically but gradually
Institutional transformation as a continuous process
6 International support to building confi dence and transforming institutions
The promise and peril of outside support
The evolving international architecture
Building confidence
Supporting institutional transformation
Dual accountability and managing the risks of action
Lessons of international engagement
7 International action to mitigate external stresses
External security stresses
External economic stresses
Resource stresses
Between the global and the national: Regional stresses, regional support
Part 3: Practical Options and Recommendations
8 Practical country directions and options
Principles and options, not recipes
Basic principles and country-specifi c frameworks for sustained violence prevention and recovery
Practical approaches to confidence-building
Program approaches to link early results to transforming institutions
External factors: Reducing external stresses and mobilizing external support
9 New directions for international support
Track 1: Preventing repeated cycles of violence by investing in citizen security, justice, and jobs
Track 2: Reforming internal agency procedures
Track 3: Reducing external stresses: New regional and global action
Track 4: Marshaling support from lower-, middle-, and higher-income countries and from global and regional institutions
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