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Economic literacy                                                                                                                    Search:  Economics
Without economic literacy there is no possibility to understand processes of social change. Unfortunately, economic literacy is a rare commodity in capitalist, semicapitalist and protocapitalist societies where primary, secondary and university education is extremely poor for the majority -and extremely good for a wealthy minority-  which, of course is convenient for maintaining the extremely wealthy minority dominant position in society. To help students and researchers  I provide this 'rearrangement' of  valuable basic literature on economic literacy. Of course, this is just a first step. Without this first step, though, development issues cannot be understood, and, therefore, fighting against the barbaric social, political, cultural and economic effects of unleashed capitalist markets will be even more difficult. (Dr. Róbinson Rojas)

by Adam Smith      (First published in 1776)
Whole text in one file

Text by chapters:

Contents (1)
Introduction and plan of the work   (8)

BOOK I: Of the causes of improvement in the productive powers of labour,
------------------------ and of the order according to which its produce is naturally
------------------------ distributed among the different ranks of the people
CHAPTER    I:  Of the division of labour   (10)
CHAPTER   II:  Of the principle which gives occasion to the division of labour
CHAPTER  III:  That the division of labour is limited by the extent of the market  (21)
CHAPTER  IV:  Of the origen and use of money   (25)
CHAPTER   V:  Of the real and nominal price of commodities, or of their price in
------------------------ labour, and their price in money  (31)
CHAPTER   VI: Of the component part of the price of commodities  (45)
CHAPTER  VII: Of the natural and market price of commodities   (51)
CHAPTER VIII: Of the wages of labour   (58)
CHAPTER   IX: Of the profits of stock  (77)
CHAPTER    X: Of wages and profit in the different employments of labour and stock   (86)
  I - Inequalities arising from the nature of the employments themselves.
---------------PART II - Inequalities occasioned by the Policy of Europe.

CHAPTER   XI: Of the rent of land  (124)
BOOK II:  Of the nature, accumulation, and employment of stock  (222)
Introduction   (222)
CHAPTER   I: Of the division of stock    (224)
CHAPTER  II: Of money, considered as a particular branch of the general stock of
---------------------the society, or of the expense of maintaining the national capital   (230)
CHAPTER III: Of the accumulation of capital, or of productive and unproductive labour   (270)
CHAPTER IV: Of stock and interest    (286)
CHAPTER  V: Of the different employment of capitals   (293)
BOOK III: Of the different progress of opulence in different nations   (307)
CHAPTER   I: Of the natural progress of opulence   (307)
CHAPTER  II: Of the discouragement of agriculture in the ancient state of Europe,
---------------------after the fall of the Roman Empire   (311)
CHAPTER III: Of the rise and progress of cities and towns, after the fall of the
---------------------Roman Empire    (321)
CHAPTER IV: How the commerce of towns contributed to the improvement of the country    (330)
BOOK IV: Of systems of political economy   (341)
CHAPTER     I: Of the principle of the commercial or mercantile system    (342)
CHAPTER    II: Of restraints upon importation from foreign countries of such goods as can be produced at home   (361)
CHAPTER   III: Of the extraordinary restraint upon the importation of goods of
-----------------------almost all kinds, from those countries with which the balance is
-----------------------supposed to be disadvantageous    (378)
---------------Part   I -  Of the Unreasonableness of those Restraints, even upon the Principles of
---------  the Commercial System     (378)
---------------Part  II -  Of the Unreasonableness of those extraordinary Restraints, upon other
------------- Principles     ( 391)
CHAPTER   IV: Of drawbacks   (400)
CHAPTER    V: Of bounties      (405)
CHAPTER   VI: Of treaties of commerce    (437)
CHAPTER  VII: Of colonies    (447)
CHAPTER VIII: Conclusion of the mercantile system    (522)
CHAPTER   IX: Of the agricultural systems, or of those systems of political
------------------------economy which represent the produce of land, as either the sole
------------------------or the principal source of revenue and wealth of every country
----------------------- (539)
APPENDIX to  BOOK IV    (562)
BOOK V:  Of the revenues of the sovereign or commonwealth    (564)
CHAPTER I: Of the expenses of the sovereign or commonwealth    (564)
---------------PART    I - Of the Expense of Defence    (564)
---------------PART   II - Of the Expense of Justice      (579)
---------------PART  III - Of the Expense of public Works and public Institutions     (590)
---------------PART  IV - Of the Expense of supporting the Dignity of the Sovereign    (666)
Conclusion   (667)
CHAPTER II:  Of the sources of the general or public revenue of the society   (668)
---------------PART I -  Of the Funds, or Sources, of Revenue, which may peculiarly belong to
--------------- the Sovereign or Commonwealth       (668)
---------------PART II - Of Taxes     (676)
CHAPTER III: Of public debts    (749)
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith is a publication of the
Pennsylvania State University. This Portable Document file is furnished free and without any charge of
any kind. Any person using this document file, for any purpose, and in any way does so at his or her
own risk. Neither the Pennsylvania State University nor Jim Manis, Faculty Editor, nor anyone associated
with the Pennsylvania State University assumes any responsibility for the material contained within
the document or for the file as an electronic transmission, in any way.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, the Pennsylvania State
University, Electronic Classics Series, Jim Manis, Faculty Editor, Hazleton, PA 18202 is a Portable Document
File produced as part of an ongoing student publication project to bring classical works of literature,
in English, to free and easy access of those wishing to make use of them.
Cover Design: Jim Manis
Copyright © 2005 The Pennsylvania State University

The Pennsylvania State University is an equal opportunity university.


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